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From: Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary

    the Jewish high priest (A.D. 27-36) at the beginning of our
    Lord's public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius (Luke 3:2), and
    also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion (Matt.
    26:3,57; John 11:49; 18:13, 14). He held this office during the
    whole of Pilate's administration. His wife was the daughter of
    Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the
    vicar or deputy (Heb. sagan) of Caiaphas. He was of the sect of
    the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), and was a member of the council when
    he gave his opinion that Jesus should be put to death "for the
    people, and that the whole nation perish not" (John 11:50). In
    these words he unconsciously uttered a prophecy. "Like Saul, he
    was a prophet in spite of himself." Caiaphas had no power to
    inflict the punishment of death, and therefore Jesus was sent to
    Pilate, the Roman governor, that he might duly pronounce the
    sentence against him (Matt. 27:2; John 18:28). At a later period
    his hostility to the gospel is still manifest (Acts 4:6). (See ANNAS.)