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From: Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary

    the name of several Syrian kings from B.C. 280 to B.C. 65. The
    most notable of these were, (1.) Antiochus the Great, who
    ascended the throne B.C. 223. He is regarded as the "king of the
    north" referred to in Dan. 11:13-19. He was succeeded (B.C. 187)
    by his son, Seleucus Philopater, spoken of by Daniel (11:20) as
    "a raiser of taxes", in the Revised Version, "one that shall
    cause an exactor to pass through the glory of the kingdom."
      (2.) Antiochus IV., surnamed "Epiphanes" i.e., the
    Illustrious, succeeded his brother Seleucus (B.C. 175). His
    career and character are prophetically described by Daniel
    (11:21-32). He was a "vile person." In a spirit of revenge he
    organized an expedition against Jerusalem, which he destroyed,
    putting vast multitudes of its inhabitants to death in the most
    cruel manner. From this time the Jews began the great war of
    independence under their heroic Maccabean leaders with marked
    success, defeating the armies of Antiochus that were sent
    against them. Enraged at this, Antiochus marched against them in
    person, threatening utterly to exterminate the nation; but on
    the way he was suddenly arrested by the hand of death (B.C.