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Cal·cu·lus n.; *pl.* Calculi

1. Med. Any solid concretion, formed in any part of the body, but most frequent in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in the passages connected with them; as, biliary calculi; urinary calculi, etc.

2. Math. A method of computation; any process of reasoning by the use of symbols; any branch of mathematics that may involve calculation.

**Barycentric calculus**, a method of treating geometry by defining a point as the center of gravity of certain other points to which coëfficients or weights are ascribed.

**Calculus of functions**, that branch of mathematics which treats of the forms of functions that shall satisfy given conditions.

**Calculus of operations**, that branch of mathematical logic that treats of all operations that satisfy given conditions.

**Calculus of probabilities**, the science that treats of the computation of the probabilities of events, or the application of numbers to chance.

**Calculus of variations**, a branch of mathematics in which the laws of dependence which bind the variable quantities together are themselves subject to change.

**Differential calculus**, a method of investigating mathematical questions by using the ratio of certain indefinitely small quantities called __differentials__. The problems are primarily of this form: to find how the change in some variable quantity alters at each instant the value of a quantity dependent upon it.

**Exponential calculus**, that part of algebra which treats of exponents.

**Imaginary calculus**, a method of investigating the relations of real or imaginary quantities by the use of the imaginary symbols and quantities of algebra.

**Integral calculus**, a method which in the reverse of the differential, the primary object of which is to learn from the known ratio of the indefinitely small changes of two or more magnitudes, the relation of the magnitudes themselves, or, in other words, from having the differential of an algebraic expression to find the expression itself.

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Func·tion n.

1. The act of executing or performing any duty, office, or calling; performance. *“In the function of his public calling.”*

2. Physiol. The appropriate action of any special organ or part of an animal or vegetable organism; as, the function of the heart or the limbs; the function of leaves, sap, roots, etc.; life is the sum of the functions of the various organs and parts of the body.

3. The natural or assigned action of any power or faculty, as of the soul, or of the intellect; the exertion of an energy of some determinate kind.

4. The course of action which peculiarly pertains to any public officer in church or state; the activity appropriate to any business or profession.

The malady which made him incapable of performing his

regal functions. --

5. Math. A quantity so connected with another quantity, that if any alteration be made in the latter there will be a consequent alteration in the former. Each quantity is said to be a

6. Eccl. A religious ceremony, esp. one particularly impressive and elaborate.

7. A public or social ceremony or gathering; a festivity or entertainment, esp. one somewhat formal.

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