rough /ˈrəf/ 形容詞
1. Boisterous weather. [Obs.]
2. A rude fellow; a coarse bully; a rowdy.
In the rough, in an unwrought or rude condition; unpolished; as, a diamond or a sketch in the rough.
Contemplating the people in the rough. --Mrs. Browning.
Rough, adv. In a rough manner; rudely; roughly.
Sleeping rough on the trenches, and dying stubbornly in their boats. --Sir W. Scott.
Rough, v. t.
1. To render rough; to roughen.
2. To break in, as a horse, especially for military purposes.
3. To cut or make in a hasty, rough manner; -- with out; as, to rough out a carving, a sketch.
Roughing rolls, rolls for reducing, in a rough manner, a bloom of iron to bars.
To rough it, to endure hard conditions of living; to live without ordinary comforts.
Rough a. [Compar. Rougher superl. Roughest.]
1. Having inequalities, small ridges, or points, on the surface; not smooth or plain; as, a rough board; a rough stone; rough cloth. Specifically: (a) Not level; having a broken surface; uneven; -- said of a piece of land, or of a road. “Rough, uneven ways.”
(b) Not polished; uncut; -- said of a gem; as, a rough diamond. (c) Tossed in waves; boisterous; high; -- said of a sea or other piece of water.
More unequal than the roughest sea. --T. Burnet.
(d) Marked by coarseness; shaggy; ragged; disordered; -- said of dress, appearance, or the like; as, a rough coat. “A visage rough.” --Dryden. “Roughsatyrs.” --Milton.
2. Hence, figuratively, lacking refinement, gentleness, or polish. Specifically: (a) Not courteous or kind; harsh; rude; uncivil; as, a rough temper.
A fiend, a fury, pitiless and rough. --Shak.
A surly boatman, rough as wayes or winds. --Prior.
(b) Marked by severity or violence; harsh; hard; as, rough measures or actions.
On the rough edge of battle. --Milton.
A quicker and rougher remedy. --Clarendon.
Kind words prevent a good deal of that perverseness which rough and imperious usage often produces. --Locke.
(c) Loud and hoarse; offensive to the ear; harsh; grating; -- said of sound, voice, and the like; as, a rough tone; rough numbers.
(d) Austere; harsh to the taste; as, rough wine. (e) Tempestuous; boisterous; stormy; as, rough weather; a rough day.
He stayeth his rough wind. --Isa. xxvii. 8.
Time and the hour runs through the roughest day. --Shak.
(f) Hastily or carelessly done; wanting finish; incomplete; as, a rough estimate; a rough draught.
Rough diamond, an uncut diamond; hence, colloquially, a person of intrinsic worth under a rude exterior.
Rough and ready. (a) Acting with offhand promptness and efficiency. “The rough and ready understanding.”
(b) Produced offhand. “Some rough and ready theory.”
adj 1: having or caused by an irregular surface; "trees with rough
bark"; "rough ground"; "a rough ride"; "rough skin";
"rough blankets"; "his unsmooth face"; "unsmooth
writing" [syn: unsmooth] [ant: smooth]
2: (of persons or behavior) lacking refinement or finesse; "she
was a diamond in the rough"; "rough manners"
3: not quite exact or correct; "the approximate time was 10
o'clock"; "a rough guess"; "a ballpark estimate" [syn: approximate,
4: full of hardship or trials; "the rocky road to success";
"they were having a rough time" [syn: rocky]
5: violently agitated and turbulent; "boisterous winds and
waves"; "the fierce thunders roar me their music"- Ezra
Pound; "rough weather"; "rough seas" [syn: boisterous, fierce]
6: unpleasantly harsh or grating in sound; "a gravelly voice"
[syn: grating, gravel, gravelly, rasping, raspy]
7: ready and able to resort to force or violence; "pugnacious
spirits...lamented that there was so little prospect of an
exhilarating disturbance"- Herman Melville; "they were
rough and determined fighting men" [syn: pugnacious]
8: of the margin of a leaf shape; having the edge cut or
fringed or scalloped [ant: smooth]
9: not shaped by cutting or trimming; "an uncut diamond";
"rough gemstones" [syn: uncut] [ant: cut]
10: not carefully or expertly made; "managed to make a crude
splint"; "a crude cabin of logs with bark still on them";
"rough carpentry" [syn: crude]
11: not perfected; "a rough draft"; "a few rough sketches"
12: unpleasantly stern; "wild and harsh country full of hot sand
and cactus"; "the nomad life is rough and hazardous"
n : the part of a golf course bordering the fairway where the
grass is not cut short
adv 1: with roughness or violence (`rough' is an informal variant
for `roughly'); "he was pushed roughly aside"; "they
treated him rough" [syn: roughly]
2: with rough motion as over a rough surface; "ride rough"
v : prepare in preliminary or sketchy form [syn: rough in, rough