stone /ˈston/ 名詞
1. Concreted earthy or mineral matter; also, any particular mass of such matter; as, a house built of stone; the boy threw a stone; pebbles are rounded stones. “Dumb as a stone.”
They had brick for stone, and slime . . . for mortar. --Gen. xi. 3.
Note: ☞ In popular language, very large masses of stone are called rocks; small masses are called stones; and the finer kinds, gravel, or sand, or grains of sand. Stone is much and widely used in the construction of buildings of all kinds, for walls, fences, piers, abutments, arches, monuments, sculpture, and the like.
2. A precious stone; a gem. “Many a rich stone.” --Chaucer. “Inestimable stones, unvalued jewels.” --Shak.
3. Something made of stone. Specifically: -
(a) The glass of a mirror; a mirror. [Obs.]
Lend me a looking-glass;
If that her breath will mist or stain the stone,
Why, then she lives. --Shak.
(b) A monument to the dead; a gravestone.
Should some relenting eye
Glance on the where our cold relics lie. --Pope.
4. Med. A calculous concretion, especially one in the kidneys or bladder; the disease arising from a calculus.
5. One of the testes; a testicle.
6. Bot. The hard endocarp of drupes; as, the stone of a cherry or peach. See Illust. of Endocarp.
7. A weight which legally is fourteen pounds, but in practice varies with the article weighed. [Eng.]
Note: ☞ The stone of butchers' meat or fish is reckoned at 8 lbs.; of cheese, 16 lbs.; of hemp, 32 lbs.; of glass, 5 lbs.
8. Fig.: Symbol of hardness and insensibility; torpidness; insensibility; as, a heart of stone.
I have not yet forgot myself to stone. --Pope.
9. Print. A stand or table with a smooth, flat top of stone, commonly marble, on which to arrange the pages of a book, newspaper, etc., before printing; -- called also imposing stone.
Note: ☞ Stone is used adjectively or in composition with other words to denote made of stone, containing a stone or stones, employed on stone, or, more generally, of or pertaining to stone or stones; as, stone fruit, or stone-fruit; stone-hammer, or stone hammer; stone falcon, or stone-falcon. Compounded with some adjectives it denotes a degree of the quality expressed by the adjective equal to that possessed by a stone; as, stone-dead, stone-blind, stone-cold, stone-still, etc.
Atlantic stone, ivory. [Obs.] “Citron tables, or Atlantic stone.” --Milton.
Bowing stone. Same as Cromlech. --Encyc. Brit.
Meteoric stones, stones which fall from the atmosphere, as after the explosion of a meteor.
Philosopher's stone. See under Philosopher.
Rocking stone. See Rocking-stone.
Stone age, a supposed prehistoric age of the world when stone and bone were habitually used as the materials for weapons and tools; -- called also flint age. The bronze age succeeded to this.
Stone bass Zool., any one of several species of marine food fishes of the genus Serranus and allied genera, as Serranus Couchii, and Polyprion cernium of Europe; -- called also sea perch.
Stone biter Zool., the wolf fish.
Stone boiling, a method of boiling water or milk by dropping hot stones into it, -- in use among savages. --Tylor.
Stone borer Zool., any animal that bores stones; especially, one of certain bivalve mollusks which burrow in limestone. See Lithodomus, and Saxicava.
Stone bramble Bot., a European trailing species of bramble (Rubus saxatilis).
Stone bruise, a sore spot on the bottom of the foot, from a bruise by a stone.
Stone canal. Zool. Same as Sand canal, under Sand.
Stone cat Zool., any one of several species of small fresh-water North American catfishes of the genus Noturus. They have sharp pectoral spines with which they inflict painful wounds.
Stone coal, hard coal; mineral coal; anthracite coal.
Stone coral Zool., any hard calcareous coral.
Stone crab. Zool. (a) A large crab (Menippe mercenaria) found on the southern coast of the United States and much used as food. (b) A European spider crab (Lithodes maia). Stone crawfish Zool., a European crawfish (Astacus torrentium), by many writers considered only a variety of the common species (Astacus fluviatilis).
Stone curlew. Zool. (a) A large plover found in Europe (Edicnemus crepitans). It frequents stony places. Called also thick-kneed plover or bustard, and thick-knee. (b) The whimbrel. [Prov. Eng.] (c) The willet. [Local, U.S.]
Stone crush. Same as Stone bruise, above.
Stone eater. Zool. Same as Stone borer, above.
Stone falcon Zool., the merlin.
Stone fern Bot., a European fern (Asplenium Ceterach) which grows on rocks and walls.
Stone fly Zool., any one of many species of pseudoneuropterous insects of the genus Perla and allied genera; a perlid. They are often used by anglers for bait. The larvae are aquatic.
Stone fruit Bot., any fruit with a stony endocarp; a drupe, as a peach, plum, or cherry.
Stone grig Zool., the mud lamprey, or pride.
Stone hammer, a hammer formed with a face at one end, and a thick, blunt edge, parallel with the handle, at the other, -- used for breaking stone.
Stone hawk Zool., the merlin; -- so called from its habit of sitting on bare stones.
Stone jar, a jar made of stoneware.
Stone lily Paleon., a fossil crinoid.
Stone lugger. Zool. See Stone roller, below.
Stone marten Zool., a European marten (Mustela foina) allied to the pine marten, but having a white throat; -- called also beech marten.
Stone mason, a mason who works or builds in stone.
Stone-mortar Mil., a kind of large mortar formerly used in sieges for throwing a mass of small stones short distances.
Stone oil, rock oil, petroleum.
Stone parsley Bot., an umbelliferous plant (Seseli Labanotis). See under Parsley.
Stone pine. Bot. A nut pine. See the Note under Pine, and Piñon.
Stone pit, a quarry where stones are dug.
Stone pitch, hard, inspissated pitch.
Stone plover. Zool. (a) The European stone curlew. (b) Any one of several species of Asiatic plovers of the genus Esacus; as, the large stone plover (Esacus recurvirostris). (c) The gray or black-bellied plover. [Prov. Eng.] (d) The ringed plover. (e) The bar-tailed godwit. [Prov. Eng.] Also applied to other species of limicoline birds.
Stone roller. Zool. (a) An American fresh-water fish (Catostomus nigricans) of the Sucker family. Its color is yellowish olive, often with dark blotches. Called also stone lugger, stone toter, hog sucker, hog mullet. (b) A common American cyprinoid fish (Campostoma anomalum); -- called also stone lugger.
Stone's cast, or Stone's throw, the distance to which a stone may be thrown by the hand; as, they live a stone's throw from each other.
Stone snipe Zool., the greater yellowlegs, or tattler. [Local, U.S.]
Stone toter. Zool. (a) See Stone roller (a), above. (b) A cyprinoid fish (Exoglossum maxillingua) found in the rivers from Virginia to New York. It has a three-lobed lower lip; -- called also cutlips.
To leave no stone unturned, to do everything that can be done; to use all practicable means to effect an object.
Stone v. t. [imp. & p. p. Stoned p. pr. & vb. n. Stoning.]
1. To pelt, beat, or kill with stones.
And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. --Acts vii. 59.
2. To make like stone; to harden.
O perjured woman! thou dost stone my heart. --Shak.
3. To free from stones; also, to remove the seeds of; as, to stone a field; to stone cherries; to stone raisins.
4. To wall or face with stones; to line or fortify with stones; as, to stone a well; to stone a cellar.
5. To rub, scour, or sharpen with a stone.
adj : of any of various dull tannish-gray colors
n 1: a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter; "he
threw a rock at me" [syn: rock]
2: material consisting of the aggregate of minerals like those
making up the Earth's crust; "that mountain is solid
rock"; "stone is abundant in New England and there are
many quarries" [syn: rock]
3: building material consisting of a piece of rock hewn in a
definite shape for a special purpose; "he wanted a special
stone to mark the site"
4: a crystalline rock that can be cut and polished for jewelry;
"he had the gem set in a ring for his wife"; "she had
jewels made of all the rarest stones" [syn: gem, gemstone]
5: the hard inner (usually woody) layer of the pericarp of some
fruits (as peaches or plums or cherries or olives) that
contains the seed; "you should remove the stones from
prunes before cooking" [syn: pit, endocarp]
6: an avoirdupois unit used to measure the weight of a human
body; equal to 14 pounds; "a heavy chap who must have
weighed more than twenty stone"
7: United States filmmaker (born in 1946) [syn: Oliver Stone]
8: United States feminist and suffragist (1818-1893) [syn: Lucy
9: United States journalist who advocated liberal causes
(1907-1989) [syn: I. F. Stone, Isidor Feinstein Stone]
10: United States jurist who served on the United States Supreme
Court as Chief Justice (1872-1946) [syn: Harlan Fiske
11: United States architect (1902-1978) [syn: Edward Durell
12: a lack of feeling or expression or movement; "he must have a
heart of stone"; "her face was as hard as stone"
v 1: kill by throwing stones at; "Adulterers should be stoned
according to the Koran" [syn: lapidate]
2: remove the pits from; "pit plums and cherries" [syn: pit]
Stones were commonly used for buildings, also as memorials of
important events (Gen. 28:18; Josh. 24:26, 27; 1 Sam. 7:12,
etc.). They were gathered out of cultivated fields (Isa. 5:2;
comp. 2 Kings 3:19). This word is also used figuratively of
believers (1 Pet. 2:4, 5), and of the Messiah (Ps. 118:22; Isa.
28:16; Matt. 21:42; Acts 4:11, etc.). In Dan. 2:45 it refers
also to the Messiah. He is there described as "cut out of the
mountain." (See ROCK.)
A "heart of stone" denotes great insensibility (1 Sam. 25:37).
Stones were set up to commemorate remarkable events, as by
Jacob at Bethel (Gen. 28:18), at Padan-aram (35:4), and on the
occasion of parting with Laban (31:45-47); by Joshua at the
place on the banks of the Jordan where the people first "lodged"
after crossing the river (Josh. 6:8), and also in "the midst of
Jordan," where he erected another set of twelve stones (4:1-9);
and by Samuel at "Ebenezer" (1 Sam. 7:12).