field /ˈfɪ(ə)ld/ 名詞
欄 場 體
1. Cleared land; land suitable for tillage or pasture; cultivated ground; the open country.
2. A piece of land of considerable size; esp., a piece inclosed for tillage or pasture.
Fields which promise corn and wine. --Byron.
3. A place where a battle is fought; also, the battle itself.
In this glorious and well-foughten field. --Shak.
What though the field be lost? --Milton.
4. An open space; an extent; an expanse. Esp.: (a) Any blank space or ground on which figures are drawn or projected. (b) The space covered by an optical instrument at one view; as, wide-field binoculars.
Without covering, save yon field of stars. --Shak.
Ask of yonder argent fields above. --Pope.
5. Her. The whole surface of an escutcheon; also, so much of it is shown unconcealed by the different bearings upon it. See Illust. of Fess, where the field is represented as gules (red), while the fess is argent (silver).
6. An unresticted or favorable opportunity for action, operation, or achievement; province; room.
Afforded a clear field for moral experiments. --Macaulay.
8. Specifically: Baseball That part of the grounds reserved for the players which is outside of the diamond; -- called also outfield.
11. A collective term for all the competitors in any outdoor contest or trial, or for all except the favorites in the betting.
Note: ☞ Field is often used adjectively in the sense of belonging to, or used in, the fields; especially with reference to the operations and equipments of an army during a campaign away from permanent camps and fortifications. In most cases such use of the word is sufficiently clear; as, field battery; field fortification; field gun; field hospital, etc. A field geologist, naturalist, etc., is one who makes investigations or collections out of doors. A survey uses a field book for recording field notes, i.e., measurment, observations, etc., made in field work (outdoor operations). A farmer or planter employs field hands, and may use a field roller or a field derrick. Field sports are hunting, fishing, athletic games, etc.
Coal field Geol. See under Coal.
Field artillery, light ordnance mounted on wheels, for the use of a marching army.
Field basil Bot., a plant of the Mint family (Calamintha Acinos); -- called also basil thyme.
Field colors Mil., small flags for marking out the positions for squadrons and battalions; camp colors.
Field cricket Zool., a large European cricket (Gryllus campestric), remarkable for its loud notes.
Field day. (a) A day in the fields. (b) Mil. A day when troops are taken into the field for instruction in evolutions. --Farrow. (c) A day of unusual exertion or display; a gala day.
Field driver, in New England, an officer charged with the driving of stray cattle to the pound.
Field duck Zool., the little bustard (Otis tetrax), found in Southern Europe.
Field glass. Optics (a) A binocular telescope of compact form; a lorgnette; a race glass. (b) A small achromatic telescope, from 20 to 24 inches long, and having 3 to 6 draws. (c) See Field lens.
Field lark. Zool. (a) The skylark. (b) The tree pipit.
Field lens Optics, that one of the two lenses forming the eyepiece of an astronomical telescope or compound microscope which is nearer the object glass; -- called also field glass.
Field madder Bot., a plant (Sherardia arvensis) used in dyeing.
Field marshal Mil., the highest military rank conferred in the British and other European armies.
Field officer Mil., an officer above the rank of captain and below that of general.
Field officer's court U.S.Army, a court-martial consisting of one field officer empowered to try all cases, in time of war, subject to jurisdiction of garrison and regimental courts. --Farrow.
Field plover Zool., the black-bellied plover (Charadrius squatarola); also sometimes applied to the Bartramian sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda).
Field spaniel Zool., a small spaniel used in hunting small game.
Field sparrow. Zool. (a) A small American sparrow (Spizella pusilla). (b) The hedge sparrow. [Eng.]
Field staff Mil., a staff formerly used by gunners to hold a lighted match for discharging a gun.
Field vole Zool., the European meadow mouse.
Field of ice, a large body of floating ice; a pack.
Field, or Field of view, in a telescope or microscope, the entire space within which objects are seen.
Field magnet. see under Magnet.
Magnetic field. See Magnetic.
To back the field, or To bet on the field. See under Back, v. t.
To keep the field. (a) Mil. To continue a campaign. (b) To maintain one's ground against all comers.
To lay against the field or To back against the field, to bet on (a horse, etc.) against all comers.
To take the field Mil., to enter upon a campaign.
Field v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fielded; p. pr. & vb. n. Fielding.]
1. To take the field. [Obs.]
2. Ball Playing To stand out in the field, ready to catch, stop, or throw the ball.
Field, v. t. Ball Playing To catch, stop, throw, etc. (the ball), as a fielder.
n 1: a piece of land cleared of trees and usually enclosed; "he
planted a field of wheat"
2: a region where a battle is being (or has been) fought; "they
made a tour of Civil War battlefields" [syn: battlefield,
battleground, field of battle, field of honor]
3: somewhere (away from a studio or office or library or
laboratory) where practical work is done or data is
collected; "anthropologists do much of their work in the
4: a branch of knowledge; "in what discipline is his
doctorate?"; "teachers should be well trained in their
subject"; "anthropology is the study of human beings"
[syn: discipline, subject, subject area, subject
field, field of study, study, bailiwick, branch of
5: the space around a radiating body within which its
electromagnetic oscillations can exert force on another
similar body not in contact with it [syn: field of force,
6: a particular kind of commercial enterprise; "they are
outstanding in their field" [syn: field of operation, line
7: a particular environment or walk of life; "his social sphere
is limited"; "it was a closed area of employment"; "he's
out of my orbit" [syn: sphere, domain, area, orbit,
8: a piece of land prepared for playing a game; "the home crowd
cheered when Princeton took the field" [syn: playing
field, athletic field, playing area]
9: extensive tract of level open land; "they emerged from the
woods onto a vast open plain"; "he longed for the fields
of his youth" [syn: plain, champaign]
10: (mathematics) a set of elements such that addition and
multiplication are commutative and associative and
multiplication is distributive over addition and there
are two elements 0 and 1; "the set of all rational
numbers is a field"
11: a region in which active military operations are in
progress; "the army was in the field awaiting action";
"he served in the Vietnam theater for three years" [syn:
field of operations, theater, theater of operations,
theatre, theatre of operations]
12: all of the horses in a particular horse race
13: all the competitors in a particular contest or sporting
14: a geographic region (land or sea) under which something
valuable is found; "the diamond fields of South Africa"
15: (computer science) a set of one or more adjacent characters
comprising a unit of information
16: the area that is visible (as through an optical instrument)
[syn: field of view]
17: a place where planes take off and land [syn: airfield, landing
field, flying field]
v 1: catch or pick up (balls) in baseball or cricket
2: play as a fielder
3: answer adequately or successfully; "The lawyer fielded all
questions from the press"
4: select (a team or individual player) for a game; "The
Patriots fielded a young new quarterback for the Rose
(Heb. sadeh), a cultivated field, but unenclosed. It is applied
to any cultivated ground or pasture (Gen. 29:2; 31:4; 34:7), or
tillage (Gen. 37:7; 47:24). It is also applied to woodland (Ps.
132:6) or mountain top (Judg. 9:32, 36; 2 Sam. 1:21). It denotes
sometimes a cultivated region as opposed to the wilderness (Gen.
33:19; 36:35). Unwalled villages or scattered houses are spoken
of as "in the fields" (Deut. 28:3, 16; Lev. 25:31; Mark 6:36,
56). The "open field" is a place remote from a house (Gen. 4:8;
Lev. 14:7, 53; 17:5). Cultivated land of any extent was called a
field (Gen. 23:13, 17; 41:8; Lev. 27:16; Ruth 4:5; Neh. 12:29).