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From: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

 Un·der prep.
 1. Below or lower, in place or position, with the idea of being covered; lower than; beneath; -- opposed to over; as, he stood under a tree; the carriage is under cover; a cellar extends under the whole house.
    Fruit put in bottles, and the bottles let down into wells under water, will keep long.   --Bacon.
 Be gathered now, ye waters under heaven,
 Into one place.   --Milton.
 2. Hence, in many figurative uses which may be classified as follows; --
 (a) Denoting relation to some thing or person that is superior, weighs upon, oppresses, bows down, governs, directs, influences powerfully, or the like, in a relation of subjection, subordination, obligation, liability, or the like; as, to travel under a heavy load; to live under extreme oppression; to have fortitude under the evils of life; to have patience under pain, or under misfortunes; to behave like a Christian under reproaches and injuries; under the pains and penalties of the law; the condition under which one enters upon an office; under the necessity of obeying the laws; under vows of chastity.
    Both Jews and Gentiles . . . are all under sin.   --Rom. iii. 9.
 That led the embattled seraphim to war
 Under thy conduct.   --Milton.
 Who have their provand
 Only for bearing burdens, and sore blows
 For sinking under them.   --Shak.
 (b) Denoting relation to something that exceeds in rank or degree, in number, size, weight, age, or the like; in a relation of the less to the greater, of inferiority, or of falling short.
    Three sons he dying left under age.   --Spenser.
    Medicines take effect sometimes under, and sometimes above, the natural proportion of their virtue.   --Hooker.
    There are several hundred parishes in England under twenty pounds a year.   --Swift.
    It was too great an honor for any man under a duke.   --Addison.
 Note:Hence, it sometimes means at, with, or for, less than; as, he would not sell the horse under sixty dollars.
    Several young men could never leave the pulpit under half a dozen conceits.   --Swift.
 (c) Denoting relation to something that comprehends or includes, that represents or designates, that furnishes a cover, pretext, pretense, or the like; as, he betrayed him under the guise of friendship; Morpheus is represented under the figure of a boy asleep.
 A crew who, under names of old renown . . . abused
 Fanatic Egypt.   --Milton.
    Mr. Duke may be mentioned under the double capacity of a poet and a divine.   --Felton.
    Under this head may come in the several contests and wars betwixt popes and the secular princes.   --C. Leslie.
 (d) Less specifically, denoting the relation of being subject, of undergoing regard, treatment, or the like; as, a bill under discussion.
 Abject and lost, lay these, covering the flood,
 Under amazement of their hideous change.   --Milton.
 Under arms. Mil. (a) Drawn up fully armed and equipped. (b) Enrolled for military service; as, the state has a million men under arms.
 Under canvas. (a) Naut. Moved or propelled by sails; -- said of any vessel with her sail set, but especially of a steamer using her sails only, as distinguished from one under steam. Under steam and canvas signifies that a vessel is using both means of propulsion. (b) Mil. Provided with, or sheltered in, tents.
 Under fire, exposed to an enemy's fire; taking part in a battle or general engagement.
 Under foot. See under Foot, n.
 Under ground, below the surface of the ground.
 Under one's signature, with one's signature or name subscribed; attested or confirmed by one's signature.  Cf. the second Note under Over, prep.
 Under sail. Naut. (a) With anchor up, and under the influence of sails; moved by sails; in motion. (b) With sails set, though the anchor is down. (c) Same as Under canvas (a), above. --Totten.
 Under sentence, having had one's sentence pronounced.
 Under the breath, Under one's breath, with low voice; very softly.
 Under the lee Naut., to the leeward; as, under the lee of the land.
 Under the gun. Under psychological pressure, such as the need to meet a pressing deadline; feeling pressured
 Under water, below the surface of the water.
 Under way, or Under weigh Naut., in a condition to make progress; having started.