Chan·cel·lor n. A judicial court of chancery, which in England and in the United States is distinctively a court with equity jurisdiction.
Note: ☞ The chancellor was originally a chief scribe or secretary under the Roman emperors, but afterward was invested with judicial powers, and had superintendence over the other officers of the empire. From the Roman empire this office passed to the church, and every bishop has his chancellor, the principal judge of his consistory. In later times, in most countries of Europe, the chancellor was a high officer of state, keeper of the great seal of the kingdom, and having the supervision of all charters, and like public instruments of the crown, which were authenticated in the most solemn manner. In France a secretary is in some cases called a chancellor. In Scotland, the appellation is given to the foreman of a jury, or assize. In the present German empire, the chancellor is the president of the federal council and the head of the imperial administration. In the United States, the title is given to certain judges of courts of chancery or equity, established by the statutes of separate States.
Chancellor of a bishop or Chancellor of a diocese R. C. Ch. & ch. of Eng., a law officer appointed to hold the bishop's court in his diocese, and to assist him in matter of ecclesiastical law.
Chancellor of a cathedral, one of the four chief dignitaries of the cathedrals of the old foundation, and an officer whose duties are chiefly educational, with special reference to the cultivation of theology.
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, an officer before whom, or his deputy, the court of the duchy chamber of Lancaster is held. This is a special jurisdiction.
Chancellor of a university, the chief officer of a collegiate body. In Oxford, he is elected for life; in Cambridge, for a term of years; and his office is honorary, the chief duties of it devolving on the vice chancellor.
Chancellor of the exchequer, a member of the British cabinet upon whom devolves the charge of the public income and expenditure as the highest finance minister of the government.
Chancellor of the order of the Garter (or other military orders), an officer who seals the commissions and mandates of the chapter and assembly of the knights, keeps the register of their proceedings, and delivers their acts under the seal of their order.
Lord high chancellor of England, the presiding judge in the court of chancery, the highest judicial officer of the crown, and the first lay person of the state after the blood royal. He is created chancellor by the delivery into his custody of the great seal, of which he becomes keeper. He is privy counselor by his office, and prolocutor of the House of Lords by prescription.
1. One of the superior courts of law; -- so called from a checkered cloth, which covers, or formerly covered, the table. [Eng.]
Note: ☞ The exchequer was a court of law and equity. In the revenue department, it had jurisdiction over the proprietary rights of the crown against subjects; in the common law department, it administered justice in personal actions between subject and subject. A person proceeding against another in the revenue department was said to exchequer him. The judges of this court were one chief and four puisne barons, so styled. The Court of Exchequer Chamber sat as court of error in which the judgments of each of the superior courts of common law, in England, were subject to revision by the judges of the other two sitting collectively. Causes involving difficult questions of law were sometimes after argument, adjourned into this court from the other courts, for debate before judgment in the court below. Recent legislation in England (1880) has abolished the Court of Exchequer and the Court of Exchequer Chamber, as distinct tribunals, a single board of judiciary, the High Court of Justice, being established for the trial of all classes of civil cases.
2. The department of state having charge of the collection and management of the royal revenue. [Eng.] Hence, the treasury; and, colloquially, pecuniary possessions in general; as, the company's exchequer is low.
Barons of the exchequer. See under Baron.
Chancellor of the exchequer. See under Chancellor.
Exchequer bills or Exchequer bonds Eng., bills of money, or promissory bills, issued from the exchequer by authority of Parliament; a species of paper currency emitted under the authority of the government, and bearing interest.
Chancellor of the Exchequer
n : the British cabinet minister responsible for finance