1. Law A public officer who is invested with authority to hear and determine litigated causes, and to administer justice between parties in courts held for that purpose.
The parts of a judge in hearing are four: to direct the evidence; to moderate length, repetition, or impertinency of speech; to recapitulate, select, and collate the material points of that which hath been said; and to give the rule or sentence. --Bacon.
2. One who has skill, knowledge, or experience, sufficient to decide on the merits of a question, or on the quality or value of anything; one who discerns properties or relations with skill and readiness; a connoisseur; an expert; a critic.
A man who is no judge of law may be a good judge of poetry, or eloquence, or of the merits of a painting. --Dryden.
3. A person appointed to decide in a trial of skill, speed, etc., between two or more parties; an umpire; as, a judge in a horse race.
4. Jewish Hist. One of the supreme magistrates, with both civil and military powers, who governed Israel for more than four hundred years.
5. pl. The title of the seventh book of the Old Testament; the Book of Judges.
Judge Advocate Mil. & Nav., a person appointed to act as prosecutor at a court-martial; he acts as the representative of the government, as the responsible adviser of the court, and also, to a certain extent, as counsel for the accused, when he has no other counsel.
Judge-Advocate General, in the United States, the title of two officers, one attached to the War Department and having the rank of brigadier general, the other attached to the Navy Department and having the rank of colonel of marines or captain in the navy. The first is chief of the Bureau of Military Justice of the army, the other performs a similar duty for the navy. In England, the designation of a member of the ministry who is the legal adviser of the secretary of state for war, and supreme judge of the proceedings of courts-martial.
Syn: -- Judge, Umpire, Arbitrator, Referee.
Usage: A judge, in the legal sense, is a magistrate appointed to determine questions of law. An umpire is a person selected to decide between two or more who contend for a prize. An arbitrator is one chosen to allot to two contestants their portion of a claim, usually on grounds of equity and common sense. A referee is one to whom a case is referred for final adjustment. Arbitrations and references are sometimes voluntary, sometimes appointed by a court.
Judge, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Judged p. pr. & vb. n. Judging.]
1. To hear and determine, as in causes on trial; to decide as a judge; to give judgment; to pass sentence.
The Lord judge between thee and me. --Gen. xvi. 5.
Father, who art judge
Of all things made, and judgest only right! --Milton.
2. To assume the right to pass judgment on another; to sit in judgment or commendation; to criticise or pass adverse judgment upon others. See Judge, v. t., 3.
Forbear to judge, for we are sinners all. --Shak.
3. To compare facts or ideas, and perceive their relations and attributes, and thus distinguish truth from falsehood; to determine; to discern; to distinguish; to form an opinion about.
Judge not according to the appearance. --John vii. 24.
She is wise if I can judge of her. --Shak.
Judge, v. t.
1. To hear and determine by authority, as a case before a court, or a controversy between two parties. “Chaos [shall] judge the strife.”
2. To examine and pass sentence on; to try; to doom.
God shall judge the righteous and the wicked. --Eccl. iii. 7.
To bring my whole cause 'fore his holiness,
And to be judged by him. --Shak.
3. To arrogate judicial authority over; to sit in judgment upon; to be censorious toward.
Judge not, that ye be not judged. --Matt. vii. 1.
4. To determine upon or deliberation; to esteem; to think; to reckon.
If ye have judged me to be faithful to the Lord. --Acts xvi. 15.
5. To exercise the functions of a magistrate over; to govern. [Obs.]
Make us a king to judge us. --1 Sam. viii. 5.
n 1: a public official authorized to decide questions bought
before a court of justice [syn: justice, jurist, magistrate]
2: an authority who is able to estimate worth or quality [syn:
v 1: determine the result of (a competition)
2: form an opinion of or pass judgment on; "I cannot judge some
works of modern art"
3: judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or
time); "I estimate this chicken to weigh three pounds"
[syn: estimate, gauge, approximate, guess]
4: pronounce judgment on; "They labeled him unfit to work here"
[syn: pronounce, label]
5: put on trial or hear a case and sit as the judge at the
trial of; "The football star was tried for the murder of
his wife"; "The judge tried both father and son in
separate trials" [syn: adjudicate, try]
(Heb. shophet, pl. shophetim), properly a magistrate or ruler,
rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause. This
is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs
of the Israelites during the interval between the death of
Joshua and the accession of Saul (Judg. 2:18), a period of
general anarchy and confusion. "The office of judges or regents
was held during life, but it was not hereditary, neither could
they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited by
the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to
consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim
(Num. 27:21). Their authority extended only over those tribes by
whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income
attached to their office, and they bore no external marks of
dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those
of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar
position of having been from before his birth ordained 'to begin
to deliver Israel.' Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but
was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a
prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the
people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office
of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio
upon him." Of five of the judges, Tola (Judg. 10:1), Jair (3),
Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15), we have no record at all
beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is
not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its
In Ex. 2:14 Moses is so styled. This fact may indicate that
while for revenue purposes the "taskmasters" were over the
people, they were yet, just as at a later time when under the
Romans, governed by their own rulers.