base /ˈbes/ 名詞
基( 底 )數; 基點; 基本; 基礎
1. A bass, or deep, sound or tone.
2. Mus. (a) The lowest part in a musical composition. (b) One who sings, or the instrument which plays, bass. [Written also base.]
Thorough bass. See Thorough bass.
1. Of little, or less than the usual, height; of low growth; as, base shrubs. [Archaic]
2. Low in place or position. [Obs.]
3. Of humble birth; or low degree; lowly; mean. [Archaic] “A peasant and base swain.”
4. Illegitimate by birth; bastard. [Archaic]
Why bastard? wherefore base? --Shak.
5. Of little comparative value, as metal inferior to gold and silver, the precious metals.
6. Alloyed with inferior metal; debased; as, base coin; base bullion.
7. Morally low. Hence: Low-minded; unworthy; without dignity of sentiment; ignoble; mean; illiberal; menial; as, a base fellow; base motives; base occupations. “A cruel act of a base and a cowardish mind.” --Robynson (More's Utopia). “Base ingratitude.”
8. Not classical or correct. “Base Latin.”
9. Deep or grave in sound; as, the base tone of a violin. [In this sense, commonly written bass.]
10. Law Not held by honorable service; as, a base estate, one held by services not honorable; held by villenage. Such a tenure is called base, or low, and the tenant, a base tenant.
Base fee, formerly, an estate held at the will of the lord; now, a qualified fee. See note under Fee, n., 4.
Base metal. See under Metal.
Syn: -- Dishonorable; worthless; ignoble; low-minded; infamous; sordid; degraded.
Usage: -- Base, Vile, Mean. These words, as expressing moral qualities, are here arranged in the order of their strength, the strongest being placed first. Base marks a high degree of moral turpitude; vile and mean denote, in different degrees, the lack of what is valuable or worthy of esteem. What is base excites our abhorrence; what is vile provokes our disgust or indignation; what is mean awakens contempt. Base is opposed to high-minded; vile, to noble; mean, to liberal or generous. Ingratitude is base; sycophancy is vile; undue compliances are mean.
1. The bottom of anything, considered as its support, or that on which something rests for support; the foundation; as, the base of a statue. “The base of mighty mountains.”
2. Fig.: The fundamental or essential part of a thing; the essential principle; a groundwork.
3. Arch. (a) The lower part of a wall, pier, or column, when treated as a separate feature, usually in projection, or especially ornamented. (b) The lower part of a complete architectural design, as of a monument; also, the lower part of any elaborate piece of furniture or decoration.
4. Bot. That extremity of a leaf, fruit, etc., at which it is attached to its support.
5. Chem. The positive, or non-acid component of a salt; a substance which, combined with an acid, neutralizes the latter and forms a salt; -- applied also to the hydroxides of the positive elements or radicals, and to certain organic bodies resembling them in their property of forming salts with acids.
6. Pharmacy The chief ingredient in a compound.
7. Dyeing A substance used as a mordant.
8. Fort. The exterior side of the polygon, or that imaginary line which connects the salient angles of two adjacent bastions.
9. Geom. The line or surface constituting that part of a figure on which it is supposed to stand.
10. Math. The number from which a mathematical table is constructed; as, the base of a system of logarithms.
11. A low, or deep, sound. Mus. (a) The lowest part; the deepest male voice. (b) One who sings, or the instrument which plays, base. [Now commonly written bass.]
The trebles squeak for fear, the bases roar. --Dryden.
12. Mil. A place or tract of country, protected by fortifications, or by natural advantages, from which the operations of an army proceed, forward movements are made, supplies are furnished, etc.
13. Mil. The smallest kind of cannon. [Obs.]
14. Zool. That part of an organ by which it is attached to another more central organ.
15. Crystallog. The basal plane of a crystal.
16. Geol. The ground mass of a rock, especially if not distinctly crystalline.
17. Her. The lower part of the field. See Escutcheon.
18. The housing of a horse. [Obs.]
19. pl. A kind of skirt (often of velvet or brocade, but sometimes of mailed armor) which hung from the middle to about the knees, or lower. [Obs.]
20. The lower part of a robe or petticoat. [Obs.]
21. An apron. [Obs.] “Bakers in their linen bases.”
22. The point or line from which a start is made; a starting place or a goal in various games.
To their appointed base they went. --Dryden.
23. Surv. A line in a survey which, being accurately determined in length and position, serves as the origin from which to compute the distances and positions of any points or objects connected with it by a system of triangles.
24. A rustic play; -- called also prisoner's base, prison base, or bars. “To run the country base.”
25. Baseball Any one of the four bounds which mark the circuit of the infield.
Altern base. See under Altern.
Attic base. Arch. See under Attic.
Base course. Arch. (a) The first or lower course of a foundation wall, made of large stones or a mass of concrete; -- called also foundation course. (b) The architectural member forming the transition between the basement and the wall above.
Base hit Baseball, a hit, by which the batsman, without any error on the part of his opponents, is able to reach the first base without being put out.
Base line. (a) A main line taken as a base, as in surveying or in military operations. (b) A line traced round a cannon at the rear of the vent.
Base plate, the foundation plate of heavy machinery, as of the steam engine; the bed plate.
Base ring Ordnance, a projecting band of metal around the breech, connected with the body of the gun by a concave molding. --H. L. Scott.
Base v. t. [imp. & p. p. Based p. pr. & vb. n. Basing.] To put on a base or basis; to lay the foundation of; to found, as an argument or conclusion; -- used with on or upon.
Base, v. t.
1. To abase; to let, or cast, down; to lower. [Obs.]
If any . . . based his pike. --Sir T. North.
2. To reduce the value of; to debase. [Obs.]
Metals which we can not base. --Bacon.
adj 1: serving as or forming a base; "the painter applied a base
coat followed by two finishing coats" [syn: basal]
2: (used of metals) consisting of or alloyed with inferior
metal; "base coins of aluminum"; "a base metal"
3: of low birth or station (`base' is archaic in this sense);
"baseborn wretches with dirty faces"; "of humble (or
lowly) birth" [syn: baseborn, humble, lowly]
4: not adhering to ethical or moral principles; "base and
unpatriotic motives"; "a base, degrading way of life";
"cheating is dishonorable"; "they considered colonialism
immoral"; "unethical practices in handling public funds"
[syn: dishonorable, dishonourable, immoral, unethical]
5: having or showing an ignoble lack of honor or morality;
"that liberal obedience without which your army would be a
base rabble"- Edmund Burke; "taking a mean advantage";
"chok'd with ambition of the meaner sort"- Shakespeare;
"something essentially vulgar and meanspirited in
politics" [syn: mean, meanspirited]
6: illegitimate [syn: baseborn]
7: debased; not genuine; "an attempt to eliminate the base
n 1: any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning
litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and
water; "bases include oxides and hydroxides of metals
and ammonia" [syn: alkali]
2: installation from which a military force initiates
operations; "the attack wiped out our forward bases" [syn:
base of operations]
3: lowest support of a structure; "it was built on a base of
solid rock"; "he stood at the foot of the tower" [syn: foundation,
fundament, foot, groundwork, substructure, understructure]
4: place that runner must touch before scoring; "he scrambled
to get back to the bag" [syn: bag]
5: (numeration system) the positive integer that is equivalent
to one in the next higher counting place; "10 is the radix
of the decimal system" [syn: radix]
6: the bottom or lowest part; "the base of the mountain"
7: (anatomy) the part of an organ nearest its point of
attachment; "the base of the skull"
8: a lower limit; "the government established a wage floor"
9: the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or
developed or calculated or explained; "the whole argument
rested on a basis of conjecture" [syn: basis, foundation,
fundament, groundwork, cornerstone]
10: a support or foundation; "the base of the lamp" [syn: pedestal,
11: the bottom side of a geometric figure from which the
altitude can be constructed; "the base of the triangle"
12: the most important or necessary part of something; "the
basis of this drink is orange juice" [syn: basis]
13: the place where you are stationed and from which missions
start and end [syn: home]
14: an intensely anti-western terrorist network that dispenses
money and logistical support and training to a wide
variety of radical Islamic terrorist group; has cells in
more than 50 countries [syn: al-Qaeda, Qaeda, al-Qa'ida,
15: (linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are
removed; "thematic vowels are part of the stem" [syn: root,
root word, stem, theme, radical]
16: the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed
for the functioning of a country or area; "the industrial
base of Japan" [syn: infrastructure]
17: the principal ingredient of a mixture; "glycerinated gelatin
is used as a base for many ointments"; "he told the
painter that he wanted a yellow base with just a hint of
green"; "everything she cooked seemed to have rice as the
18: a flat bottom on which something is intended to sit; "a tub
should sit on its own base"
19: (electronics) the part of a transistor that separates the
emitter from the collector
v 1: use as a basis for; found on; "base a claim on some
observation" [syn: establish, ground, found]
2: use (purified cocaine) by burning it and inhaling the fumes
3: assign to a station [syn: station, post, send, place]
[also: bases (pl)]