cross /ˈkrɔs/ 名詞
1. A gibbet, consisting of two pieces of timber placed transversely upon one another, in various forms, as a T, or +, with the horizontal piece below the upper end of the upright, or as an X. It was anciently used in the execution of criminals.
Nailed to the cross
By his own nation. --Milton.
2. The sign or mark of the cross, made with the finger, or in ink, etc., or actually represented in some material; the symbol of Christ's death; the ensign and chosen symbol of Christianity, of a Christian people, and of Christendom.
The custom of making the sign of the cross with the hand or finger, as a means of conferring blessing or preserving from evil, is very old. --Schaff-Herzog Encyc.
Before the cross has waned the crescent's ray. --Sir W. Scott.
Tis where the cross is preached. --Cowper.
3. Affiction regarded as a test of patience or virtue; trial; disappointment; opposition; misfortune.
Heaven prepares a good man with crosses. --B. Jonson.
4. A piece of money stamped with the figure of a cross, also, that side of such a piece on which the cross is stamped; hence, money in general.
I should bear no cross if I did bear you; for I think you have no money in your purse. --Shak.
5. An appendage or ornament or anything in the form of a cross; a badge or ornamental device of the general shape of a cross; hence, such an ornament, even when varying considerably from that form; thus, the Cross of the British Order of St. George and St. Michael consists of a central medallion with seven arms radiating from it.
6. Arch. A monument in the form of a cross, or surmounted by a cross, set up in a public place; as, a market cross; a boundary cross; Charing Cross in London.
Dun-Edin's Cross, a pillared stone,
Rose on a turret octagon. --Sir W. Scott.
7. Her. A common heraldic bearing, of which there are many varieties. See the Illustration, above.
8. The crosslike mark or symbol used instead of a signature by those unable to write.
Five Kentish abbesses . . . .subscribed their names and crosses. --Fuller.
9. Church lands. [Ireland] [Obs.]
10. A line drawn across or through another line.
11. Hence: A mixing of breeds or stock, especially in cattle breeding; or the product of such intermixture; a hybrid of any kind.
Toning down the ancient Viking into a sort of a cross between Paul Jones and Jeremy Diddler. --Lord Dufferin.
12. Surveying An instrument for laying of offsets perpendicular to the main course.
13. Mech. A pipe-fitting with four branches the axes of which usually form's right angle.
Cross and pile, a game with money, at which it is put to chance whether a coin shall fall with that side up which bears the cross, or the other, which is called pile, or reverse; the game called heads or tails.
Cross bottony or Cross bottoné. See under Bottony.
Cross estoilé Her.. a cross, each of whose arms is pointed like the ray of a star; that is, a star having four long points only.
Cross of Calvary. See Calvary, 3.
Southern cross. Astron. See under Southern.
To do a thing on the cross, to act dishonestly; -- opposed to acting on the square. [Slang]
To take up the cross, to bear troubles and afflictions with patience from love to Christ.
1. Not parallel; lying or falling athwart; transverse; oblique; intersecting.
The cross refraction of the second prism. --Sir I. Newton.
2. Not accordant with what is wished or expected; interrupting; adverse; contrary; thwarting; perverse. “A cross fortune.”
The cross and unlucky issue of my design. --Glanvill.
The article of the resurrection seems to lie marvelously cross to the common experience of mankind. --South.
We are both love's captives, but with fates so cross,
One must be happy by the other's loss. --Dryden.
3. Characterized by, or in a state of, peevishness, fretfulness, or ill humor; as, a cross man or woman.
He had received a cross answer from his mistress. --Jer. Taylor.
4. Made in an opposite direction, or an inverse relation; mutually inverse; interchanged; as, cross interrogatories; cross marriages, as when a brother and sister marry persons standing in the same relation to each other.
Cross action Law, an action brought by a party who is sued against the person who has sued him, upon the same subject matter, as upon the same contract. --Burrill.
Cross aisle Arch., a transept; the lateral divisions of a cruciform church.
Cross axle. (a) Mach. A shaft, windlass, or roller, worked by levers at opposite ends, as in the copperplate printing press. (b) A driving axle, with cranks set at an angle of 90° with each other.
Cross bedding Geol., oblique lamination of horizontal beds.
Cross bill. See in the Vocabulary.
Cross bitt. Same as Crosspiece.
Cross bond, a form of bricklaying, in which the joints of one stretcher course come midway between those of the stretcher courses above and below, a course of headers and stretchers intervening. See Bond, n., 8.
Cross breed. See in the Vocabulary.
Cross breeding. See under Breeding.
Cross buttock, a particular throw in wrestling; hence, an unexpected defeat or repulse. --Smollet.
Cross country, across the country; not by the road. “The cross-country ride.” --Cowper.
Cross fertilization, the fertilization of the female products of one physiological individual by the male products of another, -- as the fertilization of the ovules of one plant by pollen from another. See Fertilization.
Cross file, a double convex file, used in dressing out the arms or crosses of fine wheels.
Cross fire Mil., lines of fire, from two or more points or places, crossing each other.
Cross forked. Her. See under Forked.
Cross frog. See under Frog.
Cross furrow, a furrow or trench cut across other furrows to receive the water running in them and conduct it to the side of the field.
Cross handle, a handle attached transversely to the axis of a tool, as in the augur. --Knight.
Cross lode Mining, a vein intersecting the true or principal lode.
Cross purpose. See Cross-purpose, in the Vocabulary.
Cross reference, a reference made from one part of a book or register to another part, where the same or an allied subject is treated of.
Cross sea Naut., a chopping sea, in which the waves run in contrary directions.
Cross stroke, a line or stroke across something, as across the letter t.
Cross wind, a side wind; an unfavorable wind.
Cross wires, fine wires made to traverse the field of view in a telescope, and moved by a screw with a graduated head, used for delicate astronomical observations; spider lines. Fixed cross wires are also used in microscopes, etc.
Syn: -- Fretful; peevish. See Fretful.
Cross, prep. Athwart; across. [Archaic or Colloq.]
A fox was taking a walk one night cross a village. --L'Estrange.
To go cross lots, to go across the fields; to take a short cut. [Colloq.]
Cross, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Crossed p. pr. & vb. n. Crossing.]
1. To put across or athwart; to cause to intersect; as, to cross the arms.
2. To lay or draw something, as a line, across; as, to cross the letter t.
3. To pass from one side to the other of; to pass or move over; to traverse; as, to cross a stream.
A hunted hare . . . crosses and confounds her former track. -- I. Watts.
4. To pass, as objects going in an opposite direction at the same time. “Your kind letter crossed mine.”
5. To run counter to; to thwart; to obstruct; to hinder; to clash or interfere with.
In each thing give him way; cross him in nothing. --Shak.
An oyster may be crossed in love. -- Sheridan.
6. To interfere and cut off; to debar. [Obs.]
To cross me from the golden time I look for. --Shak.
7. To make the sign of the cross upon; -- followed by the reflexive pronoun; as, he crossed himself.
8. To cancel by marking crosses on or over, or drawing a line across; to erase; -- usually with out, off, or over; as, to cross out a name.
9. To cause to interbreed; -- said of different stocks or races; to mix the breed of.
To cross a check Eng. Banking, to draw two parallel transverse lines across the face of a check, with or without adding between them the words “and company”, with or without the words “not negotiable”, or to draw the transverse lines simply, with or without the words “not negotiable” (the check in any of these cases being crossed generally). Also, to write or print across the face of a check the name of a banker, with or without the words “not negotiable” (the check being then crossed specially). A check crossed generally is payable only when presented through a bank; one crossed specially, only when presented through the bank mentioned.
To cross one's path, to oppose one's plans. --Macaulay.
Cross, v. i.
1. To lie or be athwart.
2. To move or pass from one side to the other, or from place to place; to make a transit; as, to cross from New York to Liverpool.
3. To be inconsistent. [Obs.]
Men's actions do not always cross with reason. --Sir P. Sidney.
4. To interbreed, as races; to mix distinct breeds.
If two individuals of distinct races cross, a third is invariably produced different from either. --Coleridge.
adj 1: extending or lying across; in a crosswise direction; at
right angles to the long axis; "cross members should
be all steel"; "from the transverse hall the stairway
ascends gracefully"; "transversal vibrations";
"transverse colon" [syn: cross(a), transverse, transversal,
2: perversely irritable [syn: crabbed, crabby, fussy, grouchy,
grumpy, bad-tempered, ill-tempered]
n 1: a wooden structure consisting of an upright post with a
2: marking consisting of crossing lines [syn: crisscross, mark]
3: a cross as an emblem of Christianity; used in heraldry
4: any affliction that causes great suffering; "that is his
cross to bear"; "he bears his afflictions like a crown of
thorns" [syn: crown of thorns]
5: an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar
parents or stock; especially offspring produced by
breeding plants or animals of different varieties or
breeds or species; "a mule is a cross between a horse and
a donkey" [syn: hybrid, crossbreed]
6: (genetics) the act of mixing different species or varieties
of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids [syn: hybridization,
hybridisation, crossbreeding, crossing, interbreeding,
v 1: travel across or pass over; "The caravan covered almost 100
miles each day" [syn: traverse, track, cover, pass
over, get over, get across, cut through, cut
2: meet at a point [syn: intersect]
3: hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of; "What
ultimately frustrated every challenger was Ruth's amazing
September surge"; "foil your opponent" [syn: thwart, queer,
spoil, scotch, foil, frustrate, baffle, bilk]
4: fold so as to resemble a cross; "she crossed her legs" [ant:
5: to cover or extend over an area or time period; "Rivers
traverse the valley floor", "The parking lot spans 3
acres"; "The novel spans three centuries" [syn: traverse,
6: meet and pass; "the trains crossed"
7: trace a line through or across; "cross your `t'"
8: breed animals or plants using parents of different races and
varieties; "cross a horse and a donkey"; "Mendel tried
crossbreeding"; "these species do not interbreed" [syn: crossbreed,
hybridize, hybridise, interbreed]
in the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence
used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Eph. 2:16; Heb. 12:2;
1 Cor. 1:17, 18; Gal. 5:11; 6:12, 14; Phil. 3:18). The word is
also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matt. 10:38;
16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).
The forms in which the cross is represented are these:
1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom."
2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross.
3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross.
4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of
cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the
projecting beam, was placed the "title." (See CRUCIFIXION.)
After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great
(B.C. 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of
Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a
flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc
signo vinces", i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that
on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him
to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a
new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and
borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman
army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the
embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek
letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and
Omega. (See A.)