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From: DICT.TW English-Chinese Dictionary 英漢字典

 Paul /ˈpɔl/

From: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

 Paul, n. An Italian silver coin. See Paolo.

From: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

 Paul n. See Pawl.

From: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

 Pawl n.  Mach. A pivoted tongue, or sliding bolt, on one part of a machine, adapted to fall into notches, or interdental spaces, on another part, as a ratchet wheel, in such a manner as to permit motion in one direction and prevent it in the reverse, as in a windlass; a catch, click, or detent. See Illust. of Ratchet Wheel. [Written also paul, or pall.]
 Pawl bitt Naut., a heavy timber, set abaft the windlass, to receive the strain of the pawls.
 Pawl rim or Pawl ring Naut., a stationary metallic ring surrounding the base of a capstan, having notches for the pawls to catch in.

From: WordNet (r) 2.0

      n 1: United States feminist (1885-1977) [syn: Alice Paul]
      2: (New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles;
         author of several Epistles in the New Testament; even
         though Paul was not present at the Last Supper he is
         considered an apostle; "Paul's name was Saul prior to his
         conversion to Christianity" [syn: Saint Paul, St. Paul,
          Apostle Paul, Paul the Apostle, Apostle of the
         Gentiles, Saul, Saul of Tarsus]

From: Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary

    =Saul (q.v.) was born about the same time as our Lord. His
    circumcision-name was Saul, and probably the name Paul was also
    given to him in infancy "for use in the Gentile world," as
    "Saul" would be his Hebrew home-name. He was a native of Tarsus,
    the capital of Cilicia, a Roman province in the south-east of
    Asia Minor. That city stood on the banks of the river Cydnus,
    which was navigable thus far; hence it became a centre of
    extensive commercial traffic with many countries along the
    shores of the Mediterranean, as well as with the countries of
    central Asia Minor. It thus became a city distinguished for the
    wealth of its inhabitants.
      Tarsus was also the seat of a famous university, higher in
    reputation even than the universities of Athens and Alexandria,
    the only others that then existed. Here Saul was born, and here
    he spent his youth, doubtless enjoying the best education his
    native city could afford. His father was of the straitest sect
    of the Jews, a Pharisee, of the tribe of Benjamin, of pure and
    unmixed Jewish blood (Acts 23:6; Phil. 3:5). We learn nothing
    regarding his mother; but there is reason to conclude that she
    was a pious woman, and that, like-minded with her husband, she
    exercised all a mother influence in moulding the character of
    her son, so that he could afterwards speak of himself as being,
    from his youth up, "touching the righteousness which is in the
    law, blameless" (Phil. 3:6).
      We read of his sister and his sister's son (Acts 23:16), and
    of other relatives (Rom. 16:7, 11, 12). Though a Jew, his father
    was a Roman citizen. How he obtained this privilege we are not
    informed. "It might be bought, or won by distinguished service
    to the state, or acquired in several other ways; at all events,
    his son was freeborn. It was a valuable privilege, and one that
    was to prove of great use to Paul, although not in the way in
    which his father might have been expected to desire him to make
    use of it." Perhaps the most natural career for the youth to
    follow was that of a merchant. "But it was decided that...he
    should go to college and become a rabbi, that is, a minister, a
    teacher, and a lawyer all in one."
      According to Jewish custom, however, he learned a trade before
    entering on the more direct preparation for the sacred
    profession. The trade he acquired was the making of tents from
    goats' hair cloth, a trade which was one of the commonest in
      His preliminary education having been completed, Saul was
    sent, when about thirteen years of age probably, to the great
    Jewish school of sacred learning at Jerusalem as a student of
    the law. Here he became a pupil of the celebrated rabbi
    Gamaliel, and here he spent many years in an elaborate study of
    the Scriptures and of the many questions concerning them with
    which the rabbis exercised themselves. During these years of
    diligent study he lived "in all good conscience," unstained by
    the vices of that great city.
      After the period of his student-life expired, he probably left
    Jerusalem for Tarsus, where he may have been engaged in
    connection with some synagogue for some years. But we find him
    back again at Jerusalem very soon after the death of our Lord.
    Here he now learned the particulars regarding the crucifixion,
    and the rise of the new sect of the "Nazarenes."
      For some two years after Pentecost, Christianity was quietly
    spreading its influence in Jerusalem. At length Stephen, one of
    the seven deacons, gave forth more public and aggressive
    testimony that Jesus was the Messiah, and this led to much
    excitement among the Jews and much disputation in their
    synagogues. Persecution arose against Stephen and the followers
    of Christ generally, in which Saul of Tarsus took a prominent
    part. He was at this time probably a member of the great
    Sanhedrin, and became the active leader in the furious
    persecution by which the rulers then sought to exterminate
      But the object of this persecution also failed. "They that
    were scattered abroad went everywhere preaching the word." The
    anger of the persecutor was thereby kindled into a fiercer
    flame. Hearing that fugitives had taken refuge in Damascus, he
    obtained from the chief priest letters authorizing him to
    proceed thither on his persecuting career. This was a long
    journey of about 130 miles, which would occupy perhaps six days,
    during which, with his few attendants, he steadily went onward,
    "breathing out threatenings and slaughter." But the crisis of
    his life was at hand. He had reached the last stage of his
    journey, and was within sight of Damascus. As he and his
    companions rode on, suddenly at mid-day a brilliant light shone
    round them, and Saul was laid prostrate in terror on the ground,
    a voice sounding in his ears, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou
    me?" The risen Saviour was there, clothed in the vesture of his
    glorified humanity. In answer to the anxious inquiry of the
    stricken persecutor, "Who art thou, Lord?" he said, "I am Jesus
    whom thou persecutest" (Acts 9:5; 22:8; 26:15).
      This was the moment of his conversion, the most solemn in all
    his life. Blinded by the dazzling light (Acts 9:8), his
    companions led him into the city, where, absorbed in deep
    thought for three days, he neither ate nor drank (9:11).
    Ananias, a disciple living in Damascus, was informed by a vision
    of the change that had happened to Saul, and was sent to him to
    open his eyes and admit him by baptism into the Christian church
    (9:11-16). The whole purpose of his life was now permanently
      Immediately after his conversion he retired into the solitudes
    of Arabia (Gal. 1:17), perhaps of "Sinai in Arabia," for the
    purpose, probably, of devout study and meditation on the
    marvellous revelation that had been made to him. "A veil of
    thick darkness hangs over this visit to Arabia. Of the scenes
    among which he moved, of the thoughts and occupations which
    engaged him while there, of all the circumstances of a crisis
    which must have shaped the whole tenor of his after-life,
    absolutely nothing is known. 'Immediately,' says St. Paul, 'I
    went away into Arabia.' The historian passes over the incident
    [comp. Acts 9:23 and 1 Kings 11:38, 39]. It is a mysterious
    pause, a moment of suspense, in the apostle's history, a
    breathless calm, which ushers in the tumultuous storm of his
    active missionary life." Coming back, after three years, to
    Damascus, he began to preach the gospel "boldly in the name of
    Jesus" (Acts 9:27), but was soon obliged to flee (9:25; 2 Cor.
    11:33) from the Jews and betake himself to Jerusalem. Here he
    tarried for three weeks, but was again forced to flee (Acts
    9:28, 29) from persecution. He now returned to his native Tarsus
    (Gal. 1:21), where, for probably about three years, we lose
    sight of him. The time had not yet come for his entering on his
    great life-work of preaching the gospel to the Gentiles.
      At length the city of Antioch, the capital of Syria, became
    the scene of great Christian activity. There the gospel gained a
    firm footing, and the cause of Christ prospered. Barnabas
    (q.v.), who had been sent from Jerusalem to superintend the work
    at Antioch, found it too much for him, and remembering Saul, he
    set out to Tarsus to seek for him. He readily responded to the
    call thus addressed to him, and came down to Antioch, which for
    "a whole year" became the scene of his labours, which were
    crowned with great success. The disciples now, for the first
    time, were called "Christians" (Acts 11:26).
      The church at Antioch now proposed to send out missionaries to
    the Gentiles, and Saul and Barnabas, with John Mark as their
    attendant, were chosen for this work. This was a great epoch in
    the history of the church. Now the disciples began to give
    effect to the Master's command: "Go ye into all the world, and
    preach the gospel to every creature."
      The three missionaries went forth on the first missionary
    tour. They sailed from Seleucia, the seaport of Antioch, across
    to Cyprus, some 80 miles to the south-west. Here at Paphos,
    Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul, was converted, and now Saul
    took the lead, and was ever afterwards called Paul. The
    missionaries now crossed to the mainland, and then proceeded 6
    or 7 miles up the river Cestrus to Perga (Acts 13:13), where
    John Mark deserted the work and returned to Jerusalem. The two
    then proceeded about 100 miles inland, passing through
    Pamphylia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia. The towns mentioned in this
    tour are the Pisidian Antioch, where Paul delivered his first
    address of which we have any record (13:16-51; comp. 10:30-43),
    Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. They returned by the same route to
    see and encourage the converts they had made, and ordain elders
    in every city to watch over the churches which had been
    gathered. From Perga they sailed direct for Antioch, from which
    they had set out.
      After remaining "a long time", probably till A.D. 50 or 51, in
    Antioch, a great controversy broke out in the church there
    regarding the relation of the Gentiles to the Mosaic law. For
    the purpose of obtaining a settlement of this question, Paul and
    Barnabas were sent as deputies to consult the church at
    Jerusalem. The council or synod which was there held (Acts 15)
    decided against the Judaizing party; and the deputies,
    accompanied by Judas and Silas, returned to Antioch, bringing
    with them the decree of the council.
      After a short rest at Antioch, Paul said to Barnabas: "Let us
    go again and visit our brethren in every city where we have
    preached the word of the Lord, and see how they do." Mark
    proposed again to accompany them; but Paul refused to allow him
    to go. Barnabas was resolved to take Mark, and thus he and Paul
    had a sharp contention. They separated, and never again met.
    Paul, however, afterwards speaks with honour of Barnabas, and
    sends for Mark to come to him at Rome (Col. 4:10; 2 Tim. 4:11).
      Paul took with him Silas, instead of Barnabas, and began his
    second missionary journey about A.D. 51. This time he went by
    land, revisiting the churches he had already founded in Asia.
    But he longed to enter into "regions beyond," and still went
    forward through Phrygia and Galatia (16:6). Contrary to his
    intention, he was constrained to linger in Galatia (q.v.), on
    account of some bodily affliction (Gal. 4:13, 14). Bithynia, a
    populous province on the shore of the Black Sea, lay now before
    him, and he wished to enter it; but the way was shut, the Spirit
    in some manner guiding him in another direction, till he came
    down to the shores of the AEgean and arrived at Troas, on the
    north-western coast of Asia Minor (Acts 16:8). Of this long
    journey from Antioch to Troas we have no account except some
    references to it in his Epistle to the Galatians (4:13).
      As he waited at Troas for indications of the will of God as to
    his future movements, he saw, in the vision of the night, a man
    from the opposite shores of Macedonia standing before him, and
    heard him cry, "Come over, and help us" (Acts 16:9). Paul
    recognized in this vision a message from the Lord, and the very
    next day set sail across the Hellespont, which separated him
    from Europe, and carried the tidings of the gospel into the
    Western world. In Macedonia, churches were planted in Philippi,
    Thessalonica, and Berea. Leaving this province, Paul passed into
    Achaia, "the paradise of genius and renown." He reached Athens,
    but quitted it after, probably, a brief sojourn (17:17-31). The
    Athenians had received him with cold disdain, and he never
    visited that city again. He passed over to Corinth, the seat of
    the Roman government of Achaia, and remained there a year and a
    half, labouring with much success. While at Corinth, he wrote
    his two epistles to the church of Thessalonica, his earliest
    apostolic letters, and then sailed for Syria, that he might be
    in time to keep the feast of Pentecost at Jerusalem. He was
    accompanied by Aquila and Priscilla, whom he left at Ephesus, at
    which he touched, after a voyage of thirteen or fifteen days. He
    landed at Caesarea, and went up to Jerusalem, and having
    "saluted the church" there, and kept the feast, he left for
    Antioch, where he abode "some time" (Acts 18:20-23).
      He then began his third missionary tour. He journeyed by land
    in the "upper coasts" (the more eastern parts) of Asia Minor,
    and at length made his way to Ephesus, where he tarried for no
    less than three years, engaged in ceaseless Christian labour.
    "This city was at the time the Liverpool of the Mediterranean.
    It possessed a splendid harbour, in which was concentrated the
    traffic of the sea which was then the highway of the nations;
    and as Liverpool has behind her the great towns of Lancashire,
    so had Ephesus behind and around her such cities as those
    mentioned along with her in the epistles to the churches in the
    book of Revelation, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis,
    Philadelphia, and Laodicea. It was a city of vast wealth, and it
    was given over to every kind of pleasure, the fame of its
    theatres and race-course being world-wide" (Stalker's Life of
    St. Paul). Here a "great door and effectual" was opened to the
    apostle. His fellow-labourers aided him in his work, carrying
    the gospel to Colosse and Laodicea and other places which they
    could reach.
      Very shortly before his departure from Ephesus, the apostle
    wrote his First Epistle to the Corinthians (q.v.). The
    silversmiths, whose traffic in the little images which they made
    was in danger (see DEMETRIUS), organized a riot
    against Paul, and he left the city, and proceeded to Troas (2
    Cor. 2:12), whence after some time he went to meet Titus in
    Macedonia. Here, in consequence of the report Titus brought from
    Corinth, he wrote his second epistle to that church. Having
    spent probably most of the summer and autumn in Macedonia,
    visiting the churches there, specially the churches of Philippi,
    Thessalonica, and Berea, probably penetrating into the interior,
    to the shores of the Adriatic (Rom. 15:19), he then came into
    Greece, where he abode three month, spending probably the
    greater part of this time in Corinth (Acts 20:2). During his
    stay in this city he wrote his Epistle to the Galatians, and
    also the great Epistle to the Romans. At the end of the three
    months he left Achaia for Macedonia, thence crossed into Asia
    Minor, and touching at Miletus, there addressed the Ephesian
    presbyters, whom he had sent for to meet him (Acts 20:17), and
    then sailed for Tyre, finally reaching Jerusalem, probably in
    the spring of A.D. 58.
      While at Jerusalem, at the feast of Pentecost, he was almost
    murdered by a Jewish mob in the temple. (See TEMPLE, HEROD'S
    T0003611.) Rescued from their violence by the Roman commandant,
    he was conveyed as a prisoner to Caesarea, where, from various
    causes, he was detained a prisoner for two years in Herod's
    praetorium (Acts 23:35). "Paul was not kept in close
    confinement; he had at least the range of the barracks in which
    he was detained. There we can imagine him pacing the ramparts on
    the edge of the Mediterranean, and gazing wistfully across the
    blue waters in the direction of Macedonia, Achaia, and Ephesus,
    where his spiritual children were pining for him, or perhaps
    encountering dangers in which they sorely needed his presence.
    It was a mysterious providence which thus arrested his energies
    and condemned the ardent worker to inactivity; yet we can now
    see the reason for it. Paul was needing rest. After twenty years
    of incessant evangelization, he required leisure to garner the
    harvest of experience...During these two years he wrote nothing;
    it was a time of internal mental activity and silent progress"
    (Stalker's Life of St. Paul).
      At the end of these two years Felix (q.v.) was succeeded in
    the governorship of Palestine by Porcius Festus, before whom the
    apostle was again heard. But judging it right at this crisis to
    claim the privilege of a Roman citizen, he appealed to the
    emperor (Acts 25:11). Such an appeal could not be disregarded,
    and Paul was at once sent on to Rome under the charge of one
    Julius, a centurion of the "Augustan cohort." After a long and
    perilous voyage, he at length reached the imperial city in the
    early spring, probably, of A.D. 61. Here he was permitted to
    occupy his own hired house, under constant military custody.
    This privilege was accorded to him, no doubt, because he was a
    Roman citizen, and as such could not be put into prison without
    a trial. The soldiers who kept guard over Paul were of course
    changed at frequent intervals, and thus he had the opportunity
    of preaching the gospel to many of them during these "two whole
    years," and with the blessed result of spreading among the
    imperial guards, and even in Caesar's household, an interest in
    the truth (Phil. 1:13). His rooms were resorted to by many
    anxious inquirers, both Jews and Gentiles (Acts 28:23, 30, 31),
    and thus his imprisonment "turned rather to the furtherance of
    the gospel," and his "hired house" became the centre of a
    gracious influence which spread over the whole city. According
    to a Jewish tradition, it was situated on the borders of the
    modern Ghetto, which has been the Jewish quarters in Rome from
    the time of Pompey to the present day. During this period the
    apostle wrote his epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians,
    Philippians, and to Philemon, and probably also to the Hebrews.
      This first imprisonment came at length to a close, Paul having
    been acquitted, probably because no witnesses appeared against
    him. Once more he set out on his missionary labours, probably
    visiting western and eastern Europe and Asia Minor. During this
    period of freedom he wrote his First Epistle to Timothy and his
    Epistle to Titus. The year of his release was signalized by the
    burning of Rome, which Nero saw fit to attribute to the
    Christians. A fierce persecution now broke out against the
    Christians. Paul was siezed, and once more conveyed to Rome a
    prisoner. During this imprisonment he probably wrote the Second
    Epistle to Timothy, the last he ever wrote. "There can be little
    doubt that he appered again at Nero's bar, and this time the
    charge did not break down. In all history there is not a more
    startling illustration of the irony of human life than this
    scene of Paul at the bar of Nero. On the judgment-seat, clad in
    the imperial purple, sat a man who, in a bad world, had attained
    the eminence of being the very worst and meanest being in it, a
    man stained with every crime, a man whose whole being was so
    steeped in every nameable and unnameable vice, that body and
    soul of him were, as some one said at the time, nothing but a
    compound of mud and blood; and in the prisoner's dock stood the
    best man the world possessed, his hair whitened with labours for
    the good of men and the glory of God. The trial ended: Paul was
    condemned, and delivered over to the executioner. He was led out
    of the city, with a crowd of the lowest rabble at his heels. The
    fatal spot was reached; he knelt beside the block; the
    headsman's axe gleamed in the sun and fell; and the head of the
    apostle of the world rolled down in the dust" (probably A.D.
    66), four years before the fall of Jerusalem.

From: Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary (late 1800's)

 Paul, small; little