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From: DICT.TW English-Chinese Dictionary 英漢字典

 Da·vid /ˈdevəd/

From: WordNet (r) 2.0

      n 1: patron saint of Wales (circa 520-600) [syn: Saint David, St.
      2: French neoclassical painter who actively supported the
         French Revolution (1748-1825) [syn: Jacques Louis David]
      3: (Old Testament) the 2nd king of the Israelites; as a young
         shepherd he fought Goliath (a giant Philistine warrior)
         and killed him by hitting him in the head with a stone
         flung from a sling; he united Israel with Jerusalem as its
         capital; many of the Psalms are attributed to David (circa
         1000-962 BC)

From: Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary

    beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of
    Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man in humble life.
    His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the Nahash
    of 2 Sam. 17:25. As to his personal appearance, we only know
    that he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face (1
    Sam. 16:12; 17:42).
      His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on
    the uplands of Judah. From what we know of his after history,
    doubtless he frequently beguiled his time, when thus engaged,
    with his shepherd's flute, while he drank in the many lessons
    taught him by the varied scenes spread around him. His first
    recorded exploits were his encounters with the wild beasts of
    the field. He mentions that with his own unaided hand he slew a
    lion and also a bear, when they came out against his flock,
    beating them to death in open conflict with his club (1 Sam.
    17:34, 35).
      While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged
    with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem,
    having been guided thither by divine direction (1 Sam. 16:1-13).
    There he offered up sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel
    and Jesse's family to the sacrificial meal. Among all who
    appeared before him he failed to discover the one he sought.
    David was sent for, and the prophet immediately recognized him
    as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed Saul, who was now
    departing from the ways of God, on the throne of the kingdom. He
    accordingly, in anticipation, poured on his head the anointing
    oil. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the Spirit
    of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the
    Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1 Sam. 16:13, 14).
      Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp
    the troubled spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange
    melancholy dejection. He played before the king so skilfully
    that Saul was greatly cheered, and began to entertain great
    affection for the young shepherd. After this he went home to
    Bethlehem. But he soon again came into prominence. The armies of
    the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley
    of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was
    sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who
    were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in
    the camp of Israel, David (now about twenty years of age) was
    made aware of the state of matters when the champion of the
    Philistines, Goliath of Gath, came forth to defy Israel. David
    took his sling, and with a well-trained aim threw a stone "out
    of the brook," which struck the giant's forehead, so that he
    fell senseless to the ground. David then ran and slew him, and
    cut off his head with his own sword (1 Sam. 17). The result was
    a great victory to the Israelites, who pursued the Philistines
    to the gates of Gath and Ekron.
      David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened
    Saul's jealousy (1 Sam. 18:6-16), which he showed in various
    ways. He conceived a bitter hatred toward him, and by various
    stratagems sought his death (1 Sam. 18-30). The deep-laid plots
    of the enraged king, who could not fail to observe that David
    "prospered exceedingly," all proved futile, and only endeared
    the young hero the more to the people, and very specially to
    Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a life-long warm
    friendship was formed.
      A fugitive. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled
    to Ramah (1 Sam. 19:12-18) to Samuel, who received him, and he
    dwelt among the sons of the prophets, who were there under
    Samuel's training. It is supposed by some that the sixth,
    seventh, and eleventh Psalms were composed by him at this time.
    This place was only 3 miles from the residence of Saul, who soon
    discovered whither the fugitive had gone, and tried
    ineffectually to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless
    effort to bring his father to a better state of mind toward
    David (1 Sam. 20), who, being made aware of the fact, saw no
    hope of safety but in flight to a distance. We accordingly find
    him first at Nob (21:1-9) and then at Gath, the chief city of
    the Philistines. The king of the Philistines would not admit him
    into his service, as he expected that he would, and David
    accordingly now betook himself to the stronghold of Adullam
    (22:1-4; 1 Chr. 12:8-18). Here in a short time 400 men gathered
    around him and acknowledged him as their leader. It was at this
    time that David, amid the harassment and perils of his position,
    cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well
    of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the lines
    of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed
    (2 Sam. 23:13-17), but which he would not drink.
      In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David,
    Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family
    at Nob, "persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of
    eighty-five persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite.
    The sad tidings of the massacre were brought to David by
    Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only one who escaped. Comp.
    Ps. 52.
      Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was
    harassed by the Philistines, David with his men relieved it (1
    Sam. 23:1-14); and then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the
    strongholds in the "hill country" of Judah. Comp. Ps. 31. While
    encamped there, in the forest in the district of Ziph, he was
    visited by Jonathan, who spoke to him words of encouragement
    (23:16-18). The two now parted never to meet again. Saul
    continued his pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at
    this time, and fled to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the
    western shore of the Dead Sea (1 Sam. 23:29). Here Saul, who
    still pursued him with his army, narrowly escaped, through the
    generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected by what
    David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and
    David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he
    maintained himself by contributions gathered from the district.
    Here occurred the incident connected with Nabal and his wife
    Abigail (1 Sam. 25), whom David married after Nabal's death.
      Saul again went forth (1 Sam. 26) in pursuit of David, who had
    hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in
    the wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his
    forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence
    for the way in which he had treated David, and predicting his
    elevation to the throne.
      Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of moving
    from place to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought
    refuge among the Philistines (1 Sam. 27). He was welcomed by the
    king, who assigned him Ziklag as his residence. Here David lived
    among his followers for some time as an independent chief
    engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites and other tribes on
    the south of Judah.
      Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against
    Saul; but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of
    David's loyalty, and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which
    he found to his dismay may had been pillaged and burnt during
    his brief absence. David pursued after the raiders, the
    Amalekites, and completely routed them. On his return to Ziklag
    tidings reached him of Saul's death (2 Sam. 1). An Amalekite
    brought Saul's crown and bracelet and laid them at his feet.
    David and his men rent their clothes and mourned for Saul, who
    had been defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa. David composed a
    beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew odes, a
    "lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son" (2 Sam.
    1:18-27). It bore the title of "The Bow," and was to be taught
    to the children, that the memory of Saul and Jonathan might be
    preserved among them. "Behold, it is written in the book of
    Jasher" (q.v.).
      David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for
    Hebron under divine direction (2 Sam. 2:1-4). There they were
    cordially welcomed, and he was at once anointed as king. He was
    now about thirty years of age.
      But his title to the throne was not undisputed. Abner took
    Ish-bosheth, Saul's only remaining son, over the Jordan to
    Mahanaim, and there crowned him as king. Then began a civil war
    in Israel. The first encounter between the two opposing armies,
    led on the one side by Abner, and on the other by Joab, took
    place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted in the defeat of Abner.
    Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed (2
    Sam. 3:1, 5), but still success was on the side of David. For
    the space of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron.
    Abner now sided with David, and sought to promote his
    advancement; but was treacherously put to death by Joab in
    revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at Gibeon
    (3:22-39). This was greatly to David's regret. He mourned for
    the death of Abner. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also
    treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and
    there being now no rival, David was anointed king over all
    Israel (4:1-12).
      David king over all Israel (2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Chr. 11:1-3). The
    elders of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance
    to David in name of all the people, among whom the greatest
    enthusiasm prevailed. He was anointed king over all Israel, and
    sought out a new seat of government, more suitable than Hebron,
    as the capital of his empire. At this time there was a Jebusite
    fortress, "the stronghold", on the hill of Zion, called also
    Jebus. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's
    capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards
    built for himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The
    Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind of truce, now
    made war against David; but were defeated in battle at a place
    afterwards called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim.
    Again they invaded the land, and were a second time routed by
    him. He thus delivered Israel from their enemies.
      David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his
    new capital (2 Sam. 6). It was in the house of Abinadab at
    Kirjath-jearim, about 7 miles from Jerusalem, where it had been
    for many years, from the time when the Philistines had sent it
    home (1 Sam. 6; 7). In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it
    was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the
    ark, Num. 4), who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when
    the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the
    roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed
    the ark into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath.
    After three months David brought the ark from the house of
    Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Comp. Ps. 24. Here it was placed in a
    new tent or tabernacle which David erected for the purpose.
    About seventy years had passed since it had stood in the
    tabernacle at Shiloh. The old tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at
    which Zadok ministered. David now (1 Chr. 16) carefully set in
    order all the ritual of divine worship at Jerusalem, along with
    Abiathar the high priest. A new religious era began. The service
    of praise was for the first time introduced into public worship.
    Zion became henceforth "God's holy hill."
      David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which
    greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom (2 Sam. 8). In a
    few years the whole territory from the Euphrates to the river of
    Egypt, and from Gaza on the west to Thapsacus on the east, was
    under his sway (2 Sam. 8:3-13; 10).
      David's fall. He had now reached the height of his glory. He
    ruled over a vast empire, and his capital was enriched with the
    spoils of many lands. But in the midst of all this success he
    fell, and his character became stained with the sin of adultery
    (2 Sam. 11:2-27). It has been noted as characteristic of the
    Bible that while his military triumphs are recorded in a few
    verses, the sad story of his fall is given in detail, a story
    full of warning, and therefore recorded. This crime, in the
    attempt to conceal it, led to anoter. He was guilty of murder.
    Uriah, whom he had foully wronged, an officer of the Gibborim,
    the corps of heros (23:39), was, by his order, "set in the front
    of the hottest battle" at the siege of Rabbah, in order that he
    might be put to death. Nathan the prophet (2 Sam. 7:1-17;
    12:1-23) was sent by God to bring home his crimes to the
    conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true penitent. He
    bitterly bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second and
    fifty-first Psalms reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and
    his spiritual recovery.
      Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her first-born
    son died, according to the word of the prophet. She gave birth
    to a second son, whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately
    succeeded him on the throne (2 Sam. 12:24, 25).
      Peace. After the successful termination of all his wars, David
    formed the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. This he
    was not permitted to carry into execution, because he had been a
    man of war. God, however, sent Nathan to him with a gracious
    message (2 Sam. 7:1-16). On receiving it he went into the
    sanctuary, the tent where the ark was, and sat before the Lord,
    and poured out his heart in words of devout thanksgiving
    (18-29). The building of the temple was reserved for his son
    Solomon, who would be a man of peace (1 Chr. 22:9; 28:3).
      A cloudy evening. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of
    great prosperity and success. Now cloudy and dark days came. His
    eldest son Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was
    guilty of a great and shameful crime (2 Sam. 13). This was the
    beginning of the disasters of his later years. After two years
    Absalom terribly avenged the crime against Tamar, and put Amnon
    to death. This brought sore trouble to David's heart. Absalom,
    afraid of the consequences of his guilt, fled to Geshur beyond
    Jordan, where he remained for three years, when he was brought
    back through the intrigue of Joab (2 Sam. 14).
      After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three
    years' famine (2 Sam. 21:1-14). This was soon after followed by
    a pestilence, brought upon the land as a punishment for David's
    sinful pride in numbering the people (2 Sam. 24), in which no
    fewer than 70,000 perished in the space of three days.
      Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for David was sadly
    lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular
    sentiment against the taking of the census, and the outburst of
    the plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of
    jealously that had begun to manifest itself among some of the
    tribes against David. Absalom, taking full advantage of this
    state of things, gradually gained over the people, and at length
    openly rebelled against his father, and usurped the throne.
    Ahithophel was Absalom's chief counsellor. The revolt began in
    Hebron, the capital of Judah. Absalom was there proclaimed king.
    David was now in imminent danger, and he left Jerusalem (2 Sam.
    15:13-20), and once more became a fugitive. It was a momentous
    day in Israel. The incidents of it are recorded with a fulness
    of detail greater than of any other day in Old Testament
    history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east
    of Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks
    the rival armies were mustered and organized. They met in
    hostile array at the wood of Ephraim (2 Sam. 18:1-8). Absalom's
    army was defeated, and himself put to death by the hand of Joab
    (9-18). The tidings of the death of his rebellious son filled
    the heart of David with the most poignant grief. He "went up to
    the chamber over the gate, and wept" (33), giving utterance to
    the heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom,
    my son, my son!" Peace was now restored, and David returned to
    Jerusalem and resumed the direction of affairs. An unhappy
    dispute arose between the men of Judah and the men of Israel
    (19:41-43). Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt of the men of
    Israel. He was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there put to
    death, and so the revolt came to an end.
      The end. After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and
    that of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life
    passed away. During those years he seems to have been
    principally engaged in accumulating treasures of every kind for
    the great temple at Jerusalem, which it was reserved to his
    successor to build (1 Chr. 22; 28; 29), a house which was to be
    "exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all
    countries" (22:5). The exciting and laborious life he had spent,
    and the dangers and trials through which he had passed, had left
    him an enfeebled man, prematurely old. It became apparent that
    his life was now drawing to its close. A new palace conspiracy
    broke out as to who should be his successor. Joab favoured
    Adonijah. The chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring,"
    in the valley of Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan
    hastened on a decision on the part of David in favour of
    Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party failed. Solomon was
    brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed king and seated on his
    father's throne (1 Kings 1:11-53). David's last words are a
    grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his
    joyful confidence in his gracious covenant promises (2 Sam.
      After a reign of forty years and six months (2 Sam. 5:5; 1
    Chr. 3:4) David died (B.C. 1015) at the age of seventy years,
    "and was buried in the city of David." His tomb is still pointed
    out on Mount Zion.
      Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a
    type of the Messiah (1 Sam. 16:13). The book of Psalms commonly
    bears the title of the "Psalms of David," from the circumstance
    that he was the largest contributor (about eighty psalms) to the
    collection. (See PSALMS.)
      "The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had
    lived in harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a
    sure sign that the spirit of his government had been throughly
    loyal to the higher aims of the theocracy. The nation had not
    been oppressed by him, but had been left in the free enjoyment
    of its ancient liberties. As far as his power went he had
    striven to act justly to all (2 Sam. 8:15). His weak indulgence
    to his sons, and his own great sin besides, had been bitterly
    atoned, and were forgotten at his death in the remembrance of
    his long-tried worth. He had reigned thirty-three years in
    Jerusalem and seven and a half at Hebron (2 Sam. 5:5). Israel at
    his accession had reached the lowest point of national
    depression; its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory
    assailed by the Philistines. But he had left it an imperial
    power, with dominions like those of Egypt or Assyria. The
    sceptre of Solomon was already, before his father's death, owned
    from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and from the Orontes to
    the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours etc., iii.

From: Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary (late 1800's)

 David, well-beloved, dear