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From: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

 Tail, n.
 1. Zool. The terminal, and usually flexible, posterior appendage of an animal.
 Note:The tail of mammals and reptiles contains a series of movable vertebrae, and is covered with flesh and hairs or scales like those of other parts of the body. The tail of existing birds consists of several more or less consolidated vertebrae which supports a fanlike group of quills to which the term tail is more particularly applied. The tail of fishes consists of the tapering hind portion of the body ending in a caudal fin. The term tail is sometimes applied to the entire abdomen of a crustacean or insect, and sometimes to the terminal piece or pygidium alone.
 2. Any long, flexible terminal appendage; whatever resembles, in shape or position, the tail of an animal, as a catkin.
    Doretus writes a great praise of the distilled waters of those tails that hang on willow trees.   --Harvey.
 3. Hence, the back, last, lower, or inferior part of anything, -- as opposed to the head, or the superior part.
    The Lord will make thee the head, and not the tail.   --Deut. xxviii. 13.
 4. A train or company of attendants; a retinue.
    =\“Ah,” said he, “if you saw but the chief with his tail on.”\=   --Sir W. Scott.
 5. The side of a coin opposite to that which bears the head, effigy, or date; the reverse; -- rarely used except in the expression “heads or tails,” employed when a coin is thrown up for the purpose of deciding some point by its fall.
 6. Anat. The distal tendon of a muscle.
 7. Bot. A downy or feathery appendage to certain achenes. It is formed of the permanent elongated style.
 8. Surg. (a) A portion of an incision, at its beginning or end, which does not go through the whole thickness of the skin, and is more painful than a complete incision; -- called also tailing. (b) One of the strips at the end of a bandage formed by splitting the bandage one or more times.
 9. Naut. A rope spliced to the strap of a block, by which it may be lashed to anything.
 10. Mus. The part of a note which runs perpendicularly upward or downward from the head; the stem.
 11. pl. Same as Tailing, 4.
 12. Arch. The bottom or lower portion of a member or part, as a slate or tile.
 13. pl. Mining See Tailing, n., 5.
 15. pl. Rope Making In some forms of rope-laying machine, pieces of rope attached to the iron bar passing through the grooven wooden top containing the strands, for wrapping around the rope to be laid.
 16.  pl. A tailed coat; a tail coat. [Colloq. or Dial.]
 17. Aeronautics In airplanes, an airfoil or group of airfoils used at the rear to confer stability.
 Tail beam. Arch. Same as Tailpiece.
 Tail coverts Zool., the feathers which cover the bases of the tail quills. They are sometimes much longer than the quills, and form elegant plumes. Those above the quills are called the upper tail coverts, and those below, the under tail coverts.
 Tail end, the latter end; the termination; as, the tail end of a contest. [Colloq.]
 Tail joist. Arch. Same as Tailpiece.
 Tail of a comet Astron., a luminous train extending from the nucleus or body, often to a great distance, and usually in a direction opposite to the sun.
 Tail of a gale Naut., the latter part of it, when the wind has greatly abated. --Totten.
 Tail of a lock (on a canal), the lower end, or entrance into the lower pond.
 Tail of the trenches Fort., the post where the besiegers begin to break ground, and cover themselves from the fire of the place, in advancing the lines of approach.
 Tail spindle, the spindle of the tailstock of a turning lathe; -- called also dead spindle.
 To turn tail, to run away; to flee.
    Would she turn tail to the heron, and fly quite out another way; but all was to return in a higher pitch.   --Sir P. Sidney.

From: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

 Turn v. t. [imp. & p. p. Turned p. pr. & vb. n. Turning.]
 1. To cause to move upon a center, or as if upon a center; to give circular motion to; to cause to revolve; to cause to move round, either partially, wholly, or repeatedly; to make to change position so as to present other sides in given directions; to make to face otherwise; as, to turn a wheel or a spindle; to turn the body or the head.
    Turn the adamantine spindle round.   --Milton.
    The monarch turns him to his royal guest.   --Pope.
 2. To cause to present a different side uppermost or outmost; to make the upper side the lower, or the inside to be the outside of; to reverse the position of; as, to turn a box or a board; to turn a coat.
 3. To give another direction, tendency, or inclination to; to direct otherwise; to deflect; to incline differently; -- used both literally and figuratively; as, to turn the eyes to the heavens; to turn a horse from the road, or a ship from her course; to turn the attention to or from something. “Expert when to advance, or stand, or, turn the sway of battle.”
 Thrice I deluded her, and turned to sport
 Her importunity.   --Milton.
    My thoughts are turned on peace.   --Addison.
 4. To change from a given use or office; to divert, as to another purpose or end; to transfer; to use or employ; to apply; to devote.
    Therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David.   --1 Chron. x. 14.
    God will make these evils the occasion of a greater good, by turning them to advantage in this world.   --Tillotson.
    When the passage is open, land will be turned most to cattle; when shut, to sheep.   --Sir W. Temple.
 5. To change the form, quality, aspect, or effect of; to alter; to metamorphose; to convert; to transform; -- often with to or into before the word denoting the effect or product of the change; as, to turn a worm into a winged insect; to turn green to blue; to turn prose into verse; to turn a Whig to a Tory, or a Hindu to a Christian; to turn good to evil, and the like.
    The Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee.   --Deut. xxx. 3.
    And David said, O Lord, I pray thee, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness.   --2 Sam. xv. 31.
    Impatience turns an ague into a fever.   --Jer. Taylor.
 6. To form in a lathe; to shape or fashion (anything) by applying a cutting tool to it while revolving; as, to turn the legs of stools or tables; to turn ivory or metal.
    I had rather hear a brazen canstick turned.   --Shak.
 7. Hence, to give form to; to shape; to mold; to put in proper condition; to adapt. “The poet's pen turns them to shapes.”
    His limbs how turned, how broad his shoulders spread !   --Pope.
    He was perfectly well turned for trade.   --Addison.
 8. Specifically: -- (a) To translate; to construe; as, to turn the Iliad.
    Who turns a Persian tale for half a crown.   --Pope.
 (b) To make acid or sour; to ferment; to curdle, etc.: as, to turn cider or wine; electricity turns milk quickly.
 (c) To sicken; to nauseate; as, an emetic turns one's stomach.
 9. To make a turn about or around (something); to go or pass around by turning; as, to turn a corner.
    The ranges are not high or steep, and one can turn a kopje instead of cutting or tunneling through it.    --James Bryce.
 To be turned of, to be advanced beyond; as, to be turned of sixty-six.
 To turn a cold shoulder to, to treat with neglect or indifference.
 To turn a corner, (a) to go round a corner.  (b) [Fig.] To advance beyond a difficult stage in a project, or in life.
 To turn adrift, to cast off, to cease to care for.
 To turn a flange Mech., to form a flange on, as around a metal sheet or boiler plate, by stretching, bending, and hammering, or rolling the metal.
 To turn against. (a) To direct against; as, to turn one's arguments against himself. (b) To make unfavorable or hostile to; as, to turn one's friends against him.
 To turn a hostile army, To turn the enemy's flank, or the like Mil., to pass round it, and take a position behind it or upon its side.
 To turn a penny, or To turn an honest penny, to make a small profit by trade, or the like.
 To turn around one's finger, to have complete control of the will and actions of; to be able to influence at pleasure.
 To turn aside, to avert.
 To turn away. (a) To dismiss from service; to discard; as, to turn away a servant. (b) To avert; as, to turn away wrath or evil.
 To turn back. (a) To give back; to return.
 We turn not back the silks upon the merchants,
 When we have soiled them.   --Shak.
 (b) To cause to return or retrace one's steps; hence, to drive away; to repel. --Shak.
 To turn down. (a) To fold or double down. (b) To turn over so as to conceal the face of; as, to turn down cards. (c) To lower, or reduce in size, by turning a valve, stopcock, or the like; as, turn down the lights.
 To turn in. (a) To fold or double under; as, to turn in the edge of cloth. (b) To direct inwards; as, to turn the toes in when walking. (c) To contribute; to deliver up; as, he turned in a large amount. [Colloq.]
 To turn in the mind, to revolve, ponder, or meditate upon; -- with about, over, etc.  Turn these ideas about in your mind.” --I. Watts.
 To turn off. (a) To dismiss contemptuously; as, to turn off a sycophant or a parasite. (b) To give over; to reduce. (c) To divert; to deflect; as, to turn off the thoughts from serious subjects; to turn off a joke. (d) To accomplish; to perform, as work. (e) Mech. To remove, as a surface, by the process of turning; to reduce in size by turning. (f) To shut off, as a fluid, by means of a valve, stopcock, or other device; to stop the passage of; as, to turn off the water or the gas.
 To turn on, to cause to flow by turning a valve, stopcock, or the like; to give passage to; as, to turn on steam.
 To turn one's coat, to change one's uniform or colors; to go over to the opposite party.
 To turn one's goods or To turn one's money, and the like, to exchange in the course of trade; to keep in lively exchange or circulation; to gain or increase in trade.
 To turn one's hand to, to adapt or apply one's self to; to engage in.
 To turn out. (a) To drive out; to expel; as, to turn a family out of doors; to turn a man out of office.
    I'll turn you out of my kingdom.   -- Shak.
 (b) to put to pasture, as cattle or horses. (c) To produce, as the result of labor, or any process of manufacture; to furnish in a completed state. (d) To reverse, as a pocket, bag, etc., so as to bring the inside to the outside; hence, to produce. (e) To cause to cease, or to put out, by turning a stopcock, valve, or the like; as, to turn out the lights.
 To turn over. (a) To change or reverse the position of; to overset; to overturn; to cause to roll over. (b) To transfer; as, to turn over business to another hand. (c) To read or examine, as a book, while, turning the leaves. “We turned o'er many books together.” --Shak. (d) To handle in business; to do business to the amount of; as, he turns over millions a year. [Colloq.]
 To turn over a new leaf. See under Leaf.
 To turn tail, to run away; to retreat ignominiously.
 To turn the back, to flee; to retreat.
 To turn the back on or To turn the back upon, to treat with contempt; to reject or refuse unceremoniously.
 To turn the corner, to pass the critical stage; to get by the worst point; hence, to begin to improve, or to succeed.
 To turn the die or To turn the dice, to change fortune.
 To turn the edge of or To turn the point of, to bend over the edge or point of so as to make dull; to blunt.
 To turn the head of or To turn the brain of, to make giddy, wild, insane, or the like; to infatuate; to overthrow the reason or judgment of; as, a little success turned his head.
 To turn the scale or To turn the balance, to change the preponderance; to decide or determine something doubtful; to tip the balance.
 To turn the stomach of, to nauseate; to sicken.
 To turn the tables, to reverse the chances or conditions of success or superiority; to give the advantage to the person or side previously at a disadvantage.
 To turn tippet, to make a change. [Obs.] --B. Jonson.
 To turn to profit, To turn to advantage, etc., to make profitable or advantageous.
 To turn turtle, to capsize bottom upward; -- said of a vessel. [Naut. slang]
 To turn under Agric., to put, as soil, manure, etc., underneath from the surface by plowing, digging, or the like.
 To turn up. (a) To turn so as to bring the bottom side on top; as, to turn up the trump. (b) To bring from beneath to the surface, as in plowing, digging, etc. (c) To give an upward curve to; to tilt; as, to turn up the nose.
 To turn upon, to retort; to throw back; as, to turn the arguments of an opponent upon himself.
 To turn upside down, to confuse by putting things awry; to throw into disorder.
    This house is turned upside down since Robin Ostler died.   --Shak.