turn /ˈtɝn/ 及物動詞
Turn v. t. [imp. & p. p. Turned p. pr. & vb. n. Turning.]
1. To cause to move upon a center, or as if upon a center; to give circular motion to; to cause to revolve; to cause to move round, either partially, wholly, or repeatedly; to make to change position so as to present other sides in given directions; to make to face otherwise; as, to turn a wheel or a spindle; to turn the body or the head.
Turn the adamantine spindle round. --Milton.
The monarch turns him to his royal guest. --Pope.
2. To cause to present a different side uppermost or outmost; to make the upper side the lower, or the inside to be the outside of; to reverse the position of; as, to turn a box or a board; to turn a coat.
3. To give another direction, tendency, or inclination to; to direct otherwise; to deflect; to incline differently; -- used both literally and figuratively; as, to turn the eyes to the heavens; to turn a horse from the road, or a ship from her course; to turn the attention to or from something. “Expert when to advance, or stand, or, turn the sway of battle.”
Thrice I deluded her, and turned to sport
Her importunity. --Milton.
My thoughts are turned on peace. --Addison.
4. To change from a given use or office; to divert, as to another purpose or end; to transfer; to use or employ; to apply; to devote.
Therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David. --1 Chron. x. 14.
God will make these evils the occasion of a greater good, by turning them to advantage in this world. --Tillotson.
When the passage is open, land will be turned most to cattle; when shut, to sheep. --Sir W. Temple.
5. To change the form, quality, aspect, or effect of; to alter; to metamorphose; to convert; to transform; -- often with to or into before the word denoting the effect or product of the change; as, to turn a worm into a winged insect; to turn green to blue; to turn prose into verse; to turn a Whig to a Tory, or a Hindu to a Christian; to turn good to evil, and the like.
The Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee. --Deut. xxx. 3.
And David said, O Lord, I pray thee, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness. --2 Sam. xv. 31.
Impatience turns an ague into a fever. --Jer. Taylor.
6. To form in a lathe; to shape or fashion (anything) by applying a cutting tool to it while revolving; as, to turn the legs of stools or tables; to turn ivory or metal.
I had rather hear a brazen canstick turned. --Shak.
7. Hence, to give form to; to shape; to mold; to put in proper condition; to adapt. “The poet's pen turns them to shapes.”
His limbs how turned, how broad his shoulders spread ! --Pope.
He was perfectly well turned for trade. --Addison.
8. Specifically: -- (a) To translate; to construe; as, to turn the Iliad.
Who turns a Persian tale for half a crown. --Pope.
(b) To make acid or sour; to ferment; to curdle, etc.: as, to turn cider or wine; electricity turns milk quickly.
(c) To sicken; to nauseate; as, an emetic turns one's stomach.
9. To make a turn about or around (something); to go or pass around by turning; as, to turn a corner.
The ranges are not high or steep, and one can turn a kopje instead of cutting or tunneling through it. --James Bryce.
To be turned of, to be advanced beyond; as, to be turned of sixty-six.
To turn a cold shoulder to, to treat with neglect or indifference.
To turn a corner, (a) to go round a corner. (b) [Fig.] To advance beyond a difficult stage in a project, or in life.
To turn adrift, to cast off, to cease to care for.
To turn a flange Mech., to form a flange on, as around a metal sheet or boiler plate, by stretching, bending, and hammering, or rolling the metal.
To turn against. (a) To direct against; as, to turn one's arguments against himself. (b) To make unfavorable or hostile to; as, to turn one's friends against him.
To turn a hostile army, To turn the enemy's flank, or the like Mil., to pass round it, and take a position behind it or upon its side.
To turn a penny, or To turn an honest penny, to make a small profit by trade, or the like.
To turn around one's finger, to have complete control of the will and actions of; to be able to influence at pleasure.
To turn aside, to avert.
To turn away. (a) To dismiss from service; to discard; as, to turn away a servant. (b) To avert; as, to turn away wrath or evil.
To turn back. (a) To give back; to return.
We turn not back the silks upon the merchants,
When we have soiled them. --Shak.
(b) To cause to return or retrace one's steps; hence, to drive away; to repel. --Shak.
To turn down. (a) To fold or double down. (b) To turn over so as to conceal the face of; as, to turn down cards. (c) To lower, or reduce in size, by turning a valve, stopcock, or the like; as, turn down the lights.
To turn in. (a) To fold or double under; as, to turn in the edge of cloth. (b) To direct inwards; as, to turn the toes in when walking. (c) To contribute; to deliver up; as, he turned in a large amount. [Colloq.]
To turn in the mind, to revolve, ponder, or meditate upon; -- with about, over, etc. “ Turn these ideas about in your mind.” --I. Watts.
To turn off. (a) To dismiss contemptuously; as, to turn off a sycophant or a parasite. (b) To give over; to reduce. (c) To divert; to deflect; as, to turn off the thoughts from serious subjects; to turn off a joke. (d) To accomplish; to perform, as work. (e) Mech. To remove, as a surface, by the process of turning; to reduce in size by turning. (f) To shut off, as a fluid, by means of a valve, stopcock, or other device; to stop the passage of; as, to turn off the water or the gas.
To turn on, to cause to flow by turning a valve, stopcock, or the like; to give passage to; as, to turn on steam.
To turn one's coat, to change one's uniform or colors; to go over to the opposite party.
To turn one's goods or To turn one's money, and the like, to exchange in the course of trade; to keep in lively exchange or circulation; to gain or increase in trade.
To turn one's hand to, to adapt or apply one's self to; to engage in.
To turn out. (a) To drive out; to expel; as, to turn a family out of doors; to turn a man out of office.
I'll turn you out of my kingdom. -- Shak.
(b) to put to pasture, as cattle or horses. (c) To produce, as the result of labor, or any process of manufacture; to furnish in a completed state. (d) To reverse, as a pocket, bag, etc., so as to bring the inside to the outside; hence, to produce. (e) To cause to cease, or to put out, by turning a stopcock, valve, or the like; as, to turn out the lights.
To turn over. (a) To change or reverse the position of; to overset; to overturn; to cause to roll over. (b) To transfer; as, to turn over business to another hand. (c) To read or examine, as a book, while, turning the leaves. “We turned o'er many books together.” --Shak. (d) To handle in business; to do business to the amount of; as, he turns over millions a year. [Colloq.]
To turn over a new leaf. See under Leaf.
To turn tail, to run away; to retreat ignominiously.
To turn the back, to flee; to retreat.
To turn the back on or To turn the back upon, to treat with contempt; to reject or refuse unceremoniously.
To turn the corner, to pass the critical stage; to get by the worst point; hence, to begin to improve, or to succeed.
To turn the die or To turn the dice, to change fortune.
To turn the edge of or To turn the point of, to bend over the edge or point of so as to make dull; to blunt.
To turn the head of or To turn the brain of, to make giddy, wild, insane, or the like; to infatuate; to overthrow the reason or judgment of; as, a little success turned his head.
To turn the scale or To turn the balance, to change the preponderance; to decide or determine something doubtful; to tip the balance.
To turn the stomach of, to nauseate; to sicken.
To turn the tables, to reverse the chances or conditions of success or superiority; to give the advantage to the person or side previously at a disadvantage.
To turn tippet, to make a change. [Obs.] --B. Jonson.
To turn to profit, To turn to advantage, etc., to make profitable or advantageous.
To turn turtle, to capsize bottom upward; -- said of a vessel. [Naut. slang]
To turn under Agric., to put, as soil, manure, etc., underneath from the surface by plowing, digging, or the like.
To turn up. (a) To turn so as to bring the bottom side on top; as, to turn up the trump. (b) To bring from beneath to the surface, as in plowing, digging, etc. (c) To give an upward curve to; to tilt; as, to turn up the nose.
To turn upon, to retort; to throw back; as, to turn the arguments of an opponent upon himself.
To turn upside down, to confuse by putting things awry; to throw into disorder.
This house is turned upside down since Robin Ostler died. --Shak.
Turn v. i.
1. To move round; to have a circular motion; to revolve entirely, repeatedly, or partially; to change position, so as to face differently; to whirl or wheel round; as, a wheel turns on its axis; a spindle turns on a pivot; a man turns on his heel.
The gate . . . on golden hinges turning. --Milton.
2. Hence, to revolve as if upon a point of support; to hinge; to depend; as, the decision turns on a single fact.
Conditions of peace certainly turn upon events of war. --Swift.
3. To result or terminate; to come about; to eventuate; to issue.
If we repent seriously, submit contentedly, and serve him faithfully, afflictions shall turn to our advantage. --Wake.
4. To be deflected; to take a different direction or tendency; to be directed otherwise; to be differently applied; to be transferred; as, to turn from the road.
Turn from thy fierce wrath. --Ex. xxxii. 12.
Turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways. --Ezek. xxxiii. 11.
The understanding turns inward on itself, and reflects on its own operations. --Locke.
5. To be changed, altered, or transformed; to become transmuted; also, to become by a change or changes; to grow; as, wood turns to stone; water turns to ice; one color turns to another; to turn Muslim.
I hope you have no intent to turn husband. --Shak.
Cygnets from gray turn white. --Bacon.
6. To undergo the process of turning on a lathe; as, ivory turns well.
7. Specifically: --
(a) To become acid; to sour; -- said of milk, ale, etc.
(b) To become giddy; -- said of the head or brain.
I'll look no more;
Lest my brain turn. --Shak.
(c) To be nauseated; -- said of the stomach.
(d) To become inclined in the other direction; -- said of scales.
(e) To change from ebb to flow, or from flow to ebb; -- said of the tide.
(f) Obstetrics To bring down the feet of a child in the womb, in order to facilitate delivery.
8. Print. To invert a type of the same thickness, as temporary substitute for any sort which is exhausted.
To turn about, to face to another quarter; to turn around.
To turn again, to come back after going; to return. --Shak.
To turn against, to become unfriendly or hostile to.
To turn aside or To turn away. (a) To turn from the direct course; to withdraw from a company; to deviate. (b) To depart; to remove. (c) To avert one's face.
To turn back, to turn so as to go in an opposite direction; to retrace one's steps.
To turn in. (a) To bend inward. (b) To enter for lodgings or entertainment. (c) To go to bed. [Colloq.]
To turn into, to enter by making a turn; as, to turn into a side street.
To turn off, to be diverted; to deviate from a course; as, the road turns off to the left.
To turn on or To turn upon. (a) To turn against; to confront in hostility or anger. (b) To reply to or retort. (c) To depend on; as, the result turns on one condition.
To turn out. (a) To move from its place, as a bone. (b) To bend or point outward; as, his toes turn out. (c) To rise from bed. [Colloq.] (d) To come abroad; to appear; as, not many turned out to the fire. (e) To prove in the result; to issue; to result; as, the crops turned out poorly.
To turn over, to turn from side to side; to roll; to tumble.
To turn round. (a) To change position so as to face in another direction. (b) To change one's opinion; to change from one view or party to another.
To turn to, to apply one's self to; to have recourse to; to refer to. “Helvicus's tables may be turned to on all occasions.” --Locke.
To turn to account, profit, advantage, or the like, to be made profitable or advantageous; to become worth the while.
To turn under, to bend, or be folded, downward or under.
To turn up. (a) To bend, or be doubled, upward. (b) To appear; to come to light; to transpire; to occur; to happen.
1. The act of turning; movement or motion about, or as if about, a center or axis; revolution; as, the turn of a wheel.
2. Change of direction, course, or tendency; different order, position, or aspect of affairs; alteration; vicissitude; as, the turn of the tide.
At length his complaint took a favorable turn. --Macaulay.
The turns and varieties of all passions. --Hooker.
Too well the turns of mortal chance I know. --Pope.
3. One of the successive portions of a course, or of a series of occurrences, reckoning from change to change; hence, a winding; a bend; a meander.
And all its [the river's] thousand turns disclose.
Some fresher beauty varying round. --Byron.
4. A circuitous walk, or a walk to and fro, ending where it began; a short walk; a stroll.
Come, you and I must walk a turn together. --Shak.
I will take a turn in your garden. --Dryden.
5. Successive course; opportunity enjoyed by alternation with another or with others, or in due order; due chance; alternate or incidental occasion; appropriate time. “Nobleness and bounty . . . had their turns in his [the king's] nature.”
His turn will come to laugh at you again. --Denham.
Every one has a fair turn to be as great as he pleases. --Collier.
6. Incidental or opportune deed or office; occasional act of kindness or malice; as, to do one an ill turn.
Had I not done a friendes turn to thee? --Chaucer.
thanks are half lost when good turns are delayed. --Fairfax.
7. Convenience; occasion; purpose; exigence; as, this will not serve his turn.
I have enough to serve mine own turn. --Shak.
8. Form; cast; shape; manner; fashion; -- used in a literal or figurative sense; hence, form of expression; mode of signifying; as, the turn of thought; a man of a sprightly turn in conversation.
The turn of both his expressions and thoughts is unharmonious. --Dryden.
The Roman poets, in their description of a beautiful man, often mention the turn of his neck and arms. --Addison.
9. A change of condition; especially, a sudden or recurring symptom of illness, as a nervous shock, or fainting spell; as, a bad turn. [Colloq.]
10. A fall off the ladder at the gallows; a hanging; -- so called from the practice of causing the criminal to stand on a ladder which was turned over, so throwing him off, when the signal was given. [Obs.]
11. A round of a rope or cord in order to secure it, as about a pin or a cleat.
12. Mining A pit sunk in some part of a drift.
13. Eng. Law A court of record, held by the sheriff twice a year in every hundred within his county.
14. pl. Med. Monthly courses; menses. [Colloq.]
15. Mus. An embellishment or grace (marked thus, ░), commonly consisting of the principal note, or that on which the turn is made, with the note above, and the semitone below, the note above being sounded first, the principal note next, and the semitone below last, the three being performed quickly, as a triplet preceding the marked note. The turn may be inverted so as to begin with the lower note, in which case the sign is either placed on end thus ░, or drawn thus ░.
By turns. (a) One after another; alternately; in succession. (b) At intervals. “[They] feel by turns the bitter change.” --Milton.
In turn, in due order of succession.
To a turn, exactly; perfectly; as, done to a turn; -- a phrase alluding to the practice of cooking on a revolving spit.
To take turns, to alternate; to succeed one another in due order.
Turn and turn about, by equal alternating periods of service or duty; by turns.
Turn bench, a simple portable lathe, used on a bench by clock makers and watchmakers.
Turn buckle. See Turnbuckle, in Vocabulary.
Turn cap, a sort of chimney cap which turns round with the wind so as to present its opening to the leeward. --G. Francis.
Turn of life Med., change of life. See under Change.
Turn screw, a screw driver.
n 1: a circular segment of a curve; "a bend in the road"; "a
crook in the path" [syn: bend, crook]
2: the act of changing or reversing the direction of the
course; "he took a turn to the right" [syn: turning]
3: the activity of doing something in an agreed succession; "it
is my turn"; "it is still my play" [syn: play]
4: an unforeseen development; "events suddenly took an awkward
turn" [syn: turn of events, twist]
5: a movement in a new direction; "the turning of the wind"
6: turning away or in the opposite direction; "he made an
abrupt turn away from her"
7: turning or twisting around (in place); "with a quick twist
of his head he surveyed the room" [syn: twist]
8: a time for working (after which you will be relieved by
someone else); "it's my go"; "a spell of work" [syn: go,
9: (sports) a period of play during which one team is on the
offensive [syn: bout, round]
10: a short theatrical performance that is part of a longer
program; "he did his act three times every evening"; "she
had a catchy little routine"; "it was one of the best
numbers he ever did" [syn: act, routine, number, bit]
11: a favor for someone; "he did me a good turn" [syn: good
12: taking a short walk out and back; "we took a turn in the
v 1: change orientation or direction, also in the abstract sense;
"Turn towards me"; "The mugger turned and fled before I
could see his face"; "She turned from herself and
learned to listen to others' needs"
2: undergo a change or development; "The water turned into
ice"; "Her former friend became her worst enemy"; "He
turned traitor" [syn: become]
3: undergo a transformation or a change of position or action;
"We turned from Socialism to Capitalism"; "The people
turned against the President when he stole the election"
[syn: change state]
4: cause to move around or rotate; "turn a key"; "turn your
palm this way"
5: pass into a condition gradually, take on a specific property
or attribute; become; "The weather turned nasty"; "She
grew angry" [syn: grow]
6: to send or let go; "They turned away the crowd at the gate
of the governor's mansion"
7: pass to the other side of; "turn the corner"; "move around
the obstacle" [syn: move around]
8: move around an axis or a center; "The wheels are turning"
9: cause to move around a center so as to show another side of;
"turn a page of a book" [syn: turn over]
10: change to the contrary; "The trend was reversed"; "the tides
turned against him"; "public opinion turned when it was
revealed that the president had an affair with a White
House intern" [syn: change by reversal, reverse]
11: to break and turn over earth especially with a plow; "Farmer
Jones plowed his east field last week"; "turn the earth
in the Spring" [syn: plow, plough]
12: change color; "In Vermont, the leaves turn early"
13: cause to change or turn into something different;assume new
characteristics; "The princess turned the frog into a
prince by kissing him"; "The alchemists tried to turn
lead into gold"
14: let (something) fall or spill a container; "turn the flour
onto a plate" [syn: release]
15: twist suddenly so as to sprain; "wrench one's ankle"; "The
wrestler twisted his shoulder"; "the hikers sprained
their ankles when they fell"; "I turned my ankle and
couldn't walk for several days" [syn: twist, sprain,
wrench, wrick, rick]
16: shape by rotating on a lathe or cutting device or a wheel;
"turn the legs of the table"; "turn the clay on the
17: go sour or spoil; "The milk has soured"; "The wine worked";
"The cream has turned--we have to throw it out" [syn: sour,
18: accomplish by rotating; "turn a somersault"; "turn
19: get by buying and selling; "the company turned a good profit
after a year"
20: cause to move along an axis or into a new direction; "turn
your face to the wall"; "turn the car around"; "turn your
dance partner around"
21: channel one's attention, interest, thought, or attention
toward or away from something; "The pedophile turned to
boys for satisfaction"; "people turn to mysticism at the
turn of a millenium"
22: cause (a plastic object) to assume a crooked or angular
form; "bend the rod"; "twist the dough into a braid";
"the strong man could turn an iron bar" [syn: flex, bend,
deform, twist] [ant: unbend]
23: alter the functioning or setting of; "turn the dial to 10";
"turn the heat down"
24: direct at someone; "She turned a smile on me"; "They turned
their flashlights on the car"
25: have recourse to or make an appeal or request for help or
information to; "She called on her Representative to help
her"; "She turned to her relatives for help" [syn: call
26: become officially one year older; "She is turning 50 this